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Pharmacology is a branch of biomedical science, encompassing clinical pharmacology, that is concerned with the effects of drugs/pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics on living systems, as well as their development and chemical properties.
Allosteric modulation and biased agonism at GPCRs could be manifestations of the same underlying 'conformational selection' mechanism, and these can be harmonized by considering the influence of ligand–receptor residence time and kinetic context.
A vaccine-driven approach shows that the prominent stimulant features of the psychoactive profile of fenethylline can be attributed to amphetamine, with synergistic support from theophylline, and no direct contributions from the parent drug molecule.