Browse Articles

  • Primer |

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is often asymptomatic but can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis as well as to extrahepatic manifestations such as neurological or renal disease and pregnancy complications. In this Primer, Kamar et al. describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of HEV infection.

    • Nassim Kamar
    • , Jacques Izopet
    • , Nicole Pavio
    • , Rakesh Aggarwal
    • , Alain Labrique
    • , Heiner Wedemeyer
    •  & Harry R. Dalton
  • Correction |

    • Yoshitaka Aoki
    • , Heidi W. Brown
    • , Linda Brubaker
    • , Jean Nicolas Cornu
    • , J. Oliver Daly
    •  & Rufus Cartwright
  • PrimeView |

    Hepatitis E virus infection is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. The virus spreads through the food chain via infected animals or drinking water contaminated with human faeces, but iatrogenic transmission is also possible.

  • Primer |

    Rotaviruses are double-stranded RNA viruses that are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age. This Primer gives an overview of the pathophysiology of rotavirus infection and describes how the introduction of vaccinations has altered the epidemiology and demographics of this disease.

    • Sue E. Crawford
    • , Sasirekha Ramani
    • , Jacqueline E. Tate
    • , Umesh D. Parashar
    • , Lennart Svensson
    • , Marie Hagbom
    • , Manuel A. Franco
    • , Harry B. Greenberg
    • , Miguel O'Ryan
    • , Gagandeep Kang
    • , Ulrich Desselberger
    •  & Mary K. Estes
  • PrimeView |

    Rotaviruses are one of the leading causes of diarrhoeal diseases in children <5 years of age. This PrimeView focuses on the prevention of Rotavirus infection, for which, vaccination is crucial.

  • PrimeView |

    Functional dyspepsia is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by discomfort or pain in the upper abdomen with no apparent organic cause. This PrimeView summarizes the contributing factors, which are multifactorial.

  • Primer |

    Functional dyspepsia is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the upper abdomen (generally associated with food intake) with no apparent underlying organic cause. The three subtypes of functional dyspepsia are postprandial distress syndrome, epigastric pain syndrome and a subtype with mixed features.

    • Paul Enck
    • , Fernando Azpiroz
    • , Guy Boeckxstaens
    • , Sigrid Elsenbruch
    • , Christine Feinle-Bisset
    • , Gerald Holtmann
    • , Jeffrey M. Lackner
    • , Jukka Ronkainen
    • , Michael Schemann
    • , Andreas Stengel
    • , Jan Tack
    • , Stephan Zipfel
    •  & Nicholas J. Talley
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView accompanies the Primer on Merkel cell carcinoma by Becker and colleagues and focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of this rare but highly metastatic cutaneous cancer.

  • Primer |

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, highly metastatic skin cancer. MCC pathogenesis is associated with either the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus or chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, which can cause a characteristic pattern of multiple DNA mutations.

    • Jürgen C. Becker
    • , Andreas Stang
    • , James A. DeCaprio
    • , Lorenzo Cerroni
    • , Celeste Lebbé
    • , Michael Veness
    •  & Paul Nghiem
  • PrimeView |

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive and irreversible interstitial lung disease that is characterized by fibrotic scarring of the lung parenchyma. This PrimeView summarizes the potential mechanisms underlying the condition.

  • Primer |

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by progressive lung scarring that is thought to occur in a genetically susceptible, ageing individual through aberrant reparative responses to repeated injury to the alveolar epithelium. This Primer summarizes the processes thought to underlie the development of IPF and clinical challenges faced in treating patients with this irreversible condition.

    • Fernando J. Martinez
    • , Harold R. Collard
    • , Annie Pardo
    • , Ganesh Raghu
    • , Luca Richeldi
    • , Moises Selman
    • , Jeffrey J. Swigris
    • , Hiroyuki Taniguchi
    •  & Athol U. Wells
  • Correction |

    • Orla Hardiman
    • , Ammar Al-Chalabi
    • , Adriano Chio
    • , Emma M. Corr
    • , Giancarlo Logroscino
    • , Wim Robberecht
    • , Pamela J. Shaw
    • , Zachary Simmons
    •  & Leonard H. van den Berg
  • PrimeView |

    Syphilis is a sexually and vertically transmitted infection caused by the spirochaete Treponema pallidum. This PrimeView highlights the importance of screening in pregnant women to eliminate mother-to-child transmission, which causes several hundred thousand stillbirths and neonatal deaths every year.

  • Primer |

    Syphilis is a sexually and vertically transmitted infection caused by Treponema pallidum. Although curable, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men in developed countries, and as a major cause of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in developing nations. This Primer summarizes our current understanding of the pathogen and describes ongoing efforts towards global elimination.

    • Rosanna W. Peeling
    • , David Mabey
    • , Mary L. Kamb
    • , Xiang-Sheng Chen
    • , Justin D. Radolf
    •  & Adele S. Benzaken
  • Primer |

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons, which leads to progressive muscle weakness and paralysis. This Primer by Hardiman and colleagues provides a detailed overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of ALS, and discusses the management of both the motor and non-motor symptoms of this condition.

    • Orla Hardiman
    • , Ammar Al-Chalabi
    • , Adriano Chio
    • , Emma M. Corr
    • , Giancarlo Logroscino
    • , Wim Robberecht
    • , Pamela J. Shaw
    • , Zachary Simmons
    •  & Leonard H. van den Berg
  • PrimeView |

    The symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) include signs of upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron dysfunction. These symptoms, and the diagnostic work-up for ALS, are the main focus of this PrimeView, which accompanies the Primer by Hardiman and colleagues.

  • Correction |

    • José María Gutiérrez
    • , Juan J. Calvete
    • , Abdulrazaq G. Habib
    • , Robert A. Harrison
    • , David J. Williams
    •  & David A. Warrell
  • Correction |

    • Michael Mannstadt
    • , John P. Bilezikian
    • , Rajesh V. Thakker
    • , Fadil M. Hannan
    • , Bart L. Clarke
    • , Lars Rejnmark
    • , Deborah M. Mitchell
    • , Tamara J. Vokes
    • , Karen K. Winer
    •  & Dolores M. Shoback
  • Primer |

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is characterized by severe behavioural alterations, such as hyperactivity, anxiety and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. These behavioural manifestations, in addition to the molecular pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of FXS, are reviewed in this Primer.

    • Randi J. Hagerman
    • , Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
    • , Heather Cody Hazlett
    • , Donald B. Bailey Jr
    • , Herve Moine
    • , R. Frank Kooy
    • , Flora Tassone
    • , Ilse Gantois
    • , Nahum Sonenberg
    • , Jean Louis Mandel
    •  & Paul J. Hagerman
  • PrimeView |

    In most cases, fragile X syndrome is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in FMR1, which results in loss of expression of its gene product, fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP). This PrimeView focuses on the consequences of FMRP loss, including deficits in synpatic plasticity.

  • Primer |

    Children with severe malnutrition (which includes severe wasting and kwashiorkor) have an elevated risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. In this Primer, the authors describe the multifactorial aetiology of severe malnutrition and the efforts needed to meet the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal of zero hunger.

    • Zulfiqar A. Bhutta
    • , James A. Berkley
    • , Robert H. J. Bandsma
    • , Marko Kerac
    • , Indi Trehan
    •  & André Briend
  • PrimeView |

    Severe childhood malnutrition develops as a consequence of several social, economic and political factors. These factors are highlighted in this illustrated PrimeView, which accompanies the Primer by Bhutta et al.

  • PrimeView |

    Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that affects 1.8–2.7 million people worldwide, especially in impoverished areas of the warmer tropics and subtropics. Clinical manifestations vary from local tissue damage to life-threatening systemic effects and chronic disability, such as amputation.