Engineering

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Real-time dynamic Fourier analysis of high-speed signals is difficult using either digital or analog schemes. Here, the authors present a universal analog approach that can track the changing frequency spectrum of waveforms in a real-time fashion at the nanosecond level, continuously and with no gaps.

    • Saikrishna Reddy Konatham
    • , Reza Maram
    • , Luis Romero Cortés
    • , Jun Ho Chang
    • , Leslie Rusch
    • , Sophie LaRochelle
    • , Hugues Guillet de Chatellus
    •  & José Azaña
  • Article
    | Open Access

    To remove CO2 from the atmosphere every year by mid-century will need new technologies. Here the authors proposed the use of magnesia (MgO) in ambient looping processes to remove CO2 from the air and they found that the proposed approach will cost $46–195 tCO2−1 net removed from the atmosphere considering both grid and solar electricity resources without including post-processing costs.

    • Noah McQueen
    • , Peter Kelemen
    • , Greg Dipple
    • , Phil Renforth
    •  & Jennifer Wilcox
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Umklapp scattering, an effect that has been conventionally studied in phonon systems in quantum transport, is studied here in an elastic system. The authors demonstrate mode conversion from surface Rayleigh waves into bulk waves that have uniquely tunable properties.

    • Gregory J. Chaplain
    • , Jacopo M. De Ponti
    • , Andrea Colombi
    • , Rafael Fuentes-Dominguez
    • , Paul Dryburg
    • , Don Pieris
    • , Richard J. Smith
    • , Adam Clare
    • , Matt Clark
    •  & Richard V. Craster
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors demonstrate wafer-scale, graphene-based ion sensitive field effect transistors arrays for simultaneous concentration measurement of K+, Na+, NH4+, NO3, SO42−, HPO42− and Cl, and use their technology for real-time ion concentration measurements in an aquarium with lemnoideae lemna over a period of three weeks.

    • Ibrahim Fakih
    • , Oliver Durnan
    • , Farzaneh Mahvash
    • , Ilargi Napal
    • , Alba Centeno
    • , Amaia Zurutuza
    • , Viviane Yargeau
    •  & Thomas Szkopek
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tuning the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles by encapsulation is a long known process, but mechanistically poorly understood. Here, Beck and colleagues reveal the encapsulation mechanism by support material and the outstanding role of oxygen in the encapsulation mechanism by extensive in situ characterization.

    • Arik Beck
    • , Xing Huang
    • , Luca Artiglia
    • , Maxim Zabilskiy
    • , Xing Wang
    • , Przemyslaw Rzepka
    • , Dennis Palagin
    • , Marc-Georg Willinger
    •  & Jeroen A. van Bokhoven
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Conditioning efficiently high-voltage triboelectric nanogenerators for low-voltage applications remains a challenge. Here, the authors demonstrate two orders of magnitude improvement of the energy harvesting efficiency by applying a conditioning circuit with self-sustained and automatic hysteresis MEMS micro-plasma switches.

    • Hemin Zhang
    • , Frédéric Marty
    • , Xin Xia
    • , Yunlong Zi
    • , Tarik Bourouina
    • , Dimitri Galayko
    •  & Philippe Basset
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Most conventional PT-symmetric systems contain two physically separated modes. Here the authors proposed a PT-symmetric microwave optoelectronic oscillator, where the gain and loss modes are confined in a single spatial resonator, resulting in an increased structural simplicity, and long-term stability.

    • Jiejun Zhang
    • , Lingzhi Li
    • , Guangying Wang
    • , Xinhuan Feng
    • , Bai-Ou Guan
    •  & Jianping Yao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Accomplishing complex cognitive tasks such as speech recognition calls for artificial intelligence hardware with high computing precision. John et al. propose deep recurrent neural networks based on optoelectronic transition metal dichalcogenide memristors with high weight precision for in-memory computing.

    • Rohit Abraham John
    • , Jyotibdha Acharya
    • , Chao Zhu
    • , Abhijith Surendran
    • , Sumon Kumar Bose
    • , Apoorva Chaturvedi
    • , Nidhi Tiwari
    • , Yang Gao
    • , Yongmin He
    • , Keke K. Zhang
    • , Manzhang Xu
    • , Wei Lin Leong
    • , Zheng Liu
    • , Arindam Basu
    •  & Nripan Mathews
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Electrostatic gating of 2D transistors with ionic liquids presents intrinsic limitations. Here, the authors demonstrate n-type MoS2 and p-type WSe2 transistors on a lithium-ion solid electrolyte substrate, displaying sub-threshold values approaching the ideal limit of 60 mV/dec and complementary amplifier gain of 34 with 1 V supply.

    • Md Hasibul Alam
    • , Zifan Xu
    • , Sayema Chowdhury
    • , Zhanzhi Jiang
    • , Deepyanti Taneja
    • , Sanjay K. Banerjee
    • , Keji Lai
    • , Maria Helena Braga
    •  & Deji Akinwande
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Though flexible microwave integrated circuits (MICs) are desirable for the construction of functional microwave amplifier circuits, realizing low cost III-V-based MMICs remains a challenge. Here, the authors report a heterogeneous integration strategy for the fabrication of flexible low-cost MICs.

    • Huilong Zhang
    • , Jinghao Li
    • , Dong Liu
    • , Seunghwan Min
    • , Tzu-Hsuan Chang
    • , Kanglin Xiong
    • , Sung Hyun Park
    • , Jisoo Kim
    • , Yei Hwan Jung
    • , Jeongpil Park
    • , Juhwan Lee
    • , Jung Han
    • , Linda Katehi
    • , Zhiyong Cai
    • , Shaoqin Gong
    •  & Zhenqiang Ma
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The properties of a polymer are known to be intrinsically related to its molecular weight distribution. Here the authors use a design to synthesis protocol for producing a targeted molecular weight distribution with a computer controlled tubular flow reactor.

    • Dylan J. Walsh
    • , Devin A. Schinski
    • , Robert A. Schneider
    •  & Damien Guironnet
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Strong and ductile materials with resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement remain rare and yet are essential for hydrogen-propelled industries. Here, the authors show that a CoNiV medium-entropy alloy with face-centered cubic structure fulfils all the above criteria.

    • Hong Luo
    • , Seok Su Sohn
    • , Wenjun Lu
    • , Linlin Li
    • , Xiaogang Li
    • , Chandrahaasan K. Soundararajan
    • , Waldemar Krieger
    • , Zhiming Li
    •  & Dierk Raabe
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The physical architectures of information storage dictate how data is encoded, organised and accessed. Here the authors use DNA with a single-strand overhang as a physical address to access specific data and do in-storage file operations in a scalable and reusuable manner.

    • Kevin N. Lin
    • , Kevin Volkel
    • , James M. Tuck
    •  & Albert J. Keung
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Despite intensive research on the electrically driven insulator-to-metal transition, this phenomenon is not well understood. Using quasi 1D nanowires of two Mott insulators, the authors reveal the central role of defects in enabling a non-thermal doping driven insulator-to metal transition.

    • Yoav Kalcheim
    • , Alberto Camjayi
    • , Javier del Valle
    • , Pavel Salev
    • , Marcelo Rozenberg
    •  & Ivan K. Schuller
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Designing efficient artificial networks able to quickly converge to optimal performance for a given task remains a challenge. Here, the authors demonstrate a relation between criticality, task-performance and information theoretic fingerprint in a spiking neuromorphic network with synaptic plasticity.

    • Benjamin Cramer
    • , David Stöckel
    • , Markus Kreft
    • , Michael Wibral
    • , Johannes Schemmel
    • , Karlheinz Meier
    •  & Viola Priesemann
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Girder design for suspension bridges has remained largely unchanged for the past 60 years. Here, the authors present a design resulting in weight savings in excess of 28% while maintaining manufacturability, thus closing the gap towards super-long suspension bridges.

    • Mads Baandrup
    • , Ole Sigmund
    • , Henrik Polk
    •  & Niels Aage
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Controlling light with planar elements requires full polarization channels and reconstruction of optical signals. Here, the authors have demonstrated a general method relying on pixelated metasurfaces that enables wavefront shaping with arbitrary output polarization, allowing full utilization of polarization channels.

    • Qinghua Song
    • , Arthur Baroni
    • , Rajath Sawant
    • , Peinan Ni
    • , Virginie Brandli
    • , Sébastien Chenot
    • , Stéphane Vézian
    • , Benjamin Damilano
    • , Philippe de Mierry
    • , Samira Khadir
    • , Patrick Ferrand
    •  & Patrice Genevet
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Strong but flexible graphene tends to wrinkle, which compromises some properties. Here the authors report a solid plasticization method to prepare continuous graphene papers with high crystalline order, achieving high strength, stiffness, electrical and thermal conductivities.

    • Peng Li
    • , Mincheng Yang
    • , Yingjun Liu
    • , Huasong Qin
    • , Jingran Liu
    • , Zhen Xu
    • , Yilun Liu
    • , Fanxu Meng
    • , Jiahao Lin
    • , Fang Wang
    •  & Chao Gao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Synthetic hair-like structures (cilia) controlled by an external field have been developed, especially for microfluidic applications. Here, Gu et al. make soft artificial cilia carpets with programmable magnetization patterns and utilize them to achieve pumping and locomotion in a soft robotic model.

    • Hongri Gu
    • , Quentin Boehler
    • , Haoyang Cui
    • , Eleonora Secchi
    • , Giovanni Savorana
    • , Carmela De Marco
    • , Simone Gervasoni
    • , Quentin Peyron
    • , Tian-Yun Huang
    • , Salvador Pane
    • , Ann M. Hirt
    • , Daniel Ahmed
    •  & Bradley J. Nelson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Autonomous control of liquid motion is vital to the development of new actuators and pumps in fluid systems but autonomous control of fluid motion is inaccessible in current systems. Here, the authors identify unique features of a photochromic molecular switch that enables its use for self-regulating light activated control of fluid flow.

    • Serena Seshadri
    • , Luke F. Gockowski
    • , Jaejun Lee
    • , Miranda Sroda
    • , Matthew E. Helgeson
    • , Javier Read de Alaniz
    •  & Megan T. Valentine
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There is a need to further improve the automation of cryo-EM sample preparation to make it more easily accessible for non-specialists, reduce sample waste and increase reproducibility. Here, the authors present VitroJet, a single device, where sub-nl volumes of samples are deposited by pin printing thus eliminating the need for sample blotting, which is followed by jet vitrification, and they show that high-resolution structures can be obtained using four standard proteins.

    • Raimond B. G. Ravelli
    • , Frank J. T. Nijpels
    • , Rene J. M. Henderikx
    • , Giulia Weissenberger
    • , Sanne Thewessem
    • , Abril Gijsbers
    • , Bart W. A. M. M. Beulen
    • , Carmen López-Iglesias
    •  & Peter J. Peters
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Microcombs provide many opportunities for integration in optical communications systems. Here, the authors implement a soliton crystal microcomb as a tool to demonstrate more than 44 Tb/s communications with high spectral efficiency.

    • Bill Corcoran
    • , Mengxi Tan
    • , Xingyuan Xu
    • , Andreas Boes
    • , Jiayang Wu
    • , Thach G. Nguyen
    • , Sai T. Chu
    • , Brent E. Little
    • , Roberto Morandotti
    • , Arnan Mitchell
    •  & David J. Moss
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Living organisms, like fish and bacteria, frequently change their pattern as a group to cope with environment. Here, Bäuerle et al. reproduce this phenomenon using a synthetic system of controllably interactive colloids to show their collective motions that indicates being close to a critical point.

    • Tobias Bäuerle
    • , Robert C. Löffler
    •  & Clemens Bechinger
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Though existing capacitive models describe the electronic transport in organic electrochemical transistors, these models do not provide an accurate steady-state solution. Here, the authors report a numerical model that describes the distribution and accumulation of ions in the transistor channel.

    • Vikash Kaphle
    • , Pushpa Raj Paudel
    • , Drona Dahal
    • , Raj Kishen Radha Krishnan
    •  & Björn Lüssem
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Out-of-plane ferroelectricity is usually unstable in the two dimensional limit due to the presence of the depolarization field. Here, the authors successfully circumvent this issue by growing µm-sized SnS monolayers that exhibit in-plane ferroelectricity that is stable at room temperature.

    • Naoki Higashitarumizu
    • , Hayami Kawamoto
    • , Chien-Ju Lee
    • , Bo-Han Lin
    • , Fu-Hsien Chu
    • , Itsuki Yonemori
    • , Tomonori Nishimura
    • , Katsunori Wakabayashi
    • , Wen-Hao Chang
    •  & Kosuke Nagashio
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Designing energy efficient artificial neural networks for real-time analysis remains a challenge. Here, the authors report the development of a perovskite halide (CsPbI3) memristor-based Reservoir Computing system for real-time recognition of neural firing patterns and neural synchronization states.

    • Xiaojian Zhu
    • , Qiwen Wang
    •  & Wei D. Lu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Neutrophils mobilize rapidly and travel through the vasculature and microcirculation en masse in response to inflammatory stimuli. Here the authors use a microfluidic device and intravital microscopy to show neutrophils move through tissues in a highly ordered pattern, taking turns to file into alternate branches at bifurcations.

    • Xiao Wang
    • , Mokarram Hossain
    • , Ania Bogoslowski
    • , Paul Kubes
    •  & Daniel Irimia
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Designing efficient and flexible metamaterial with uncorrelated transmissions for spatial vibration encoding and identification remains a challenge. Here, the authors propose a randomized resonant metamaterial with randomly coupled local resonators for single-sensor identification of elastic vibrations.

    • Tianxi Jiang
    • , Chong Li
    • , Qingbo He
    •  & Zhi-Ke Peng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Acoustic resonators may find application for qubit coupling in compact quantum information and processing systems. Here the authors show a multi-phonon source with high quality factors and long phonon lifetimes via epitaxial high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators.

    • Vikrant J. Gokhale
    • , Brian P. Downey
    • , D. Scott Katzer
    • , Neeraj Nepal
    • , Andrew C. Lang
    • , Rhonda M. Stroud
    •  & David J. Meyer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Self-healable conductive materials are of importance for emerging electronic technologies. Here, Suh et al. report a nanocomposite exhibiting high conductivity facilitated by electron tunneling between silver nanoparticles and its 100% recovery of conductivity after 1000 breaking and healing cycles.

    • Daewoo Suh
    • , K. P. Faseela
    • , Wonjoon Kim
    • , Chanyong Park
    • , Jang Gyun Lim
    • , Sungwon Seo
    • , Moon Ki Kim
    • , Hyungpil Moon
    •  & Seunghyun Baik
  • Article
    | Open Access

    To advance the design of soft robots, novel computational frameworks that accurately model the dynamics of soft material systems are required. Here, the authors report a numerical framework for studying locomotion in limbed soft robots that is based on the discrete elastic rods algorithm.

    • Weicheng Huang
    • , Xiaonan Huang
    • , Carmel Majidi
    •  & M. Khalid Jawed
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Designing efficient systems capable emulating the muscular excitation-contraction signatures, remains a challenge. Here, the authors propose cytoadhesion-inspired hybrids as locally-coupled electromechanical interfaces capable retrieving the myoelectric and mechanical signals.

    • Pingqiang Cai
    • , Changjin Wan
    • , Liang Pan
    • , Naoji Matsuhisa
    • , Ke He
    • , Zequn Cui
    • , Wei Zhang
    • , Chengcheng Li
    • , Jianwu Wang
    • , Jing Yu
    • , Ming Wang
    • , Ying Jiang
    • , Geng Chen
    •  & Xiaodong Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Real-time monitoring human motions normally demands connecting a large number of sensors in a complicated network. To make it simpler, Kim et al. decode the motion of fingers using a flexible sensor attached on wrist that measures skin deformation with the help of a deep-learning architecture.

    • Kyun Kyu Kim
    • , InHo Ha
    • , Min Kim
    • , Joonhwa Choi
    • , Phillip Won
    • , Sungho Jo
    •  & Seung Hwan Ko
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The 3D microstructure of the electrode predominantly determines the electrochemical performance of Li-ion batteries. Here, the authors show that the microstructural heterogeneities lead to non-uniform Li insertion and current distribution while graded-microstructures improve the performance.

    • Xuekun Lu
    • , Antonio Bertei
    • , Donal P. Finegan
    • , Chun Tan
    • , Sohrab R. Daemi
    • , Julia S. Weaving
    • , Kieran B. O’Regan
    • , Thomas M. M. Heenan
    • , Gareth Hinds
    • , Emma Kendrick
    • , Dan J. L. Brett
    •  & Paul R. Shearing
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Artifact-free opto-electrophysiology is key for precise modulation and monitoring of individual neurons at high spatio-temporal resolution. The authors present a method for eliminating stimulation artifacts in high-density micro-LED optoelectrodes for accurate functional mapping of local circuits.

    • Kanghwan Kim
    • , Mihály Vöröslakos
    • , John P. Seymour
    • , Kensall D. Wise
    • , György Buzsáki
    •  & Euisik Yoon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    At terahertz frequencies, link discovery by scanning is impractically slow. Here, the authors propose an alternative, single-shot link-finding method based on a leaky-wave device.

    • Yasaman Ghasempour
    • , Rabi Shrestha
    • , Aaron Charous
    • , Edward Knightly
    •  & Daniel M. Mittleman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Separating molecules or ions with sub-Angstrom scale precision is important but technically challenging. Here, the authors demonstrate that precise solute-solute separation can be achieved using polyamide membranes formed via surfactant-assembly regulated interfacial polymerization.

    • Yuanzhe Liang
    • , Yuzhang Zhu
    • , Cheng Liu
    • , Kueir-Rarn Lee
    • , Wei-Song Hung
    • , Zhenyi Wang
    • , Youyong Li
    • , Menachem Elimelech
    • , Jian Jin
    •  & Shihong Lin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Negative capacitance (NC) effects that could allow steep subthreshold swing (SS) in field-effect transistors (FETs) are still controversially discussed. Here the authors propose a model distinct from the NC concept, taking into account domain flips in multiple-domain ferroelectric/paraelectric gate stack FETs.

    • Xiuyan Li
    •  & Akira Toriumi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Carbon nanothreads are promising for applications in mechanical energy storage and energy harvesting. Here the authors use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations and continuum elasticity theory to explore mechanical energy storage in carbon nanothreads-based bundles.

    • Haifei Zhan
    • , Gang Zhang
    • , John M. Bell
    • , Vincent B. C. Tan
    •  & Yuantong Gu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Platinum nanocatalysts play critical roles in CO oxidation. Herein, the authors discover that under-coordinated Pt atoms at the edges of the first cluster layer are rendered cationic by direct contact with the Al2O3 support, which affects the overall CO oxidation activity.

    • Atsushi Beniya
    • , Shougo Higashi
    • , Nobuko Ohba
    • , Ryosuke Jinnouchi
    • , Hirohito Hirata
    •  & Yoshihide Watanabe
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Designing energy efficient systems capable to directly process signals at biological voltages remains a challenge. Here, the authors propose a bio-compatible memristor device based on protein-nanowire dielectric, harvested from the bacterium Geobactor sulfurreducens, working at biological voltages.

    • Tianda Fu
    • , Xiaomeng Liu
    • , Hongyan Gao
    • , Joy E. Ward
    • , Xiaorong Liu
    • , Bing Yin
    • , Zhongrui Wang
    • , Ye Zhuo
    • , David J. F. Walker
    • , J. Joshua Yang
    • , Jianhan Chen
    • , Derek R. Lovley
    •  & Jun Yao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Currently a cell-resolution map of the human cornea can only be obtained in the clinic with a confocal microscope in contact with the eye. Here the authors develop a full-field/spectral-domain OCT microscope (FF/SD OCT) to enable cell-level detail of the entire ocular surface, as well as blood flow and tear dynamics.

    • Viacheslav Mazlin
    • , Peng Xiao
    • , Jules Scholler
    • , Kristina Irsch
    • , Kate Grieve
    • , Mathias Fink
    •  & A. Claude Boccara
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Reacting CO2 and ethane to achieve value-added C3 oxygenates offers opportunities to simultaneously reduce CO2 emissions and upgrade underutilized ethane in shale gas. Here, the authors report a successful oxygenate production strategy enabled by inserting CO2-derived CO into ethane-derived ethylene using a tandem reactor.

    • Zhenhua Xie
    • , Yuanguo Xu
    • , Meng Xie
    • , Xiaobo Chen
    • , Ji Hoon Lee
    • , Eli Stavitski
    • , Shyam Kattel
    •  & Jingguang G. Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Researchers leverage advances in machine learning to study the brain’s mechanism for natural language processing. Results suggest that the brain represents a continuous semantic space and uses distributed cortical networks for differential coding of semantic relations.

    • Yizhen Zhang
    • , Kuan Han
    • , Robert Worth
    •  & Zhongming Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Predicting and controlling traffic congestion propagation is an ongoing challenge in most urban settings. Here, Seberi et al. apply a contagion model describing epidemic spread in population to model traffic jams, and verify its validity using large-scale data from six different cities around the world.

    • Meead Saberi
    • , Homayoun Hamedmoghadam
    • , Mudabber Ashfaq
    • , Seyed Amir Hosseini
    • , Ziyuan Gu
    • , Sajjad Shafiei
    • , Divya J. Nair
    • , Vinayak Dixit
    • , Lauren Gardner
    • , S. Travis Waller
    •  & Marta C. González
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The gold standard for diagnosis and monitoring of myocardial infarction is a chemiluminescence assay based on the detection of cardian troponin I (cTnI). Here, the authors develop a plasmonic gold nano-island chip assay for ultrasensitive detection of cTnI in as little as 10 μL of serum.

    • Wei Xu
    • , Lin Wang
    • , Ru Zhang
    • , Xuming Sun
    • , Lin Huang
    • , Haiyang Su
    • , Xunbin Wei
    • , Chia-Chun Chen
    • , Jiatao Lou
    • , Hongjie Dai
    •  & Kun Qian
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The unexpectedly long-ranged interface stress observed in recent delamination experiments is yet to be clarified. Here, the authors develop an analytical approach to show the wavelike atomic deformation as the origin for the observed ultra long-range stress in delamination of graphene from various substrates.

    • Paul Hauseux
    • , Thanh-Tung Nguyen
    • , Alberto Ambrosetti
    • , Katerine Saleme Ruiz
    • , Stéphane P. A. Bordas
    •  & Alexandre Tkatchenko