Cell adhesion

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Humans and other large mammals heal wounds by forming fibrotic scar tissue with diminished function. Here, the authors show that disrupting mechanotransduction through the focal adhesion kinase pathway in large animals accelerates healing, prevents fibrosis, and enhances skin regeneration.

    • Kellen Chen
    • , Sun Hyung Kwon
    •  & Geoffrey C. Gurtner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors have recently developed molecular force microscopy (MFM) which uses fluorescence polarisation to measure cell-surface receptor force orientation. Here they show that structured illumination microscopes, which inherently use fluorescence polarisation, can be used for MFM in a turn-key manner.

    • Aaron Blanchard
    • , J. Dale Combs
    •  & Khalid Salaita
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are metabolic by-products which in excess can be toxic for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Here the authors show that toxic ROS are transferred by expanding HSPCs to the zebrafish developmental niche via connexin Cx41.8, where Ifi30 promotes their detoxification.

    • Pietro Cacialli
    • , Christopher B. Mahony
    •  & Julien Y. Bertrand
  • Article
    | Open Access

    HAP2 is essential for gamete fusion during fertilization and is conserved among eukaryotes. Here the authors show that species-specific adhesion between Chlamydomonas plus and minus gametes initiates HAP2 to undergo a fusogenic conformational change into homotrimers via a molecular mechanism akin to that of enveloped viruses.

    • Jun Zhang
    • , Jennifer F. Pinello
    •  & William J. Snell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Recognition of laminin by integrin receptors mediates epithelial cell adhesion to basement membrane. Here, the structures of the α6β1 integrin alone and in complex with three-chain laminin-511 fragment reveal the laminin-integrin interface in molecular detail.

    • Takao Arimori
    • , Naoyuki Miyazaki
    •  & Junichi Takagi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Studying dynamic processes in mechanobiology has been challenging due to lack of appropriate tools. Here, the authors present an interference-based method, illuminated via two rapidly alternating wavelengths, which enables real-time mapping of nanoscale forces with sub-second mechanical fluctuations.

    • Andrew T. Meek
    • , Nils M. Kronenberg
    •  & Malte C. Gather
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Macrophages perform diverse functions during immune responses, but the molecular mechanisms by which physical properties of the tissue regulate macrophage behavior remain unknown. Here the authors find that Piezo1 is a mechanosensor of stiffness, and that its activity modulates macrophage polarization responses.

    • Hamza Atcha
    • , Amit Jairaman
    •  & Wendy F. Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Focal adhesions (FAs) initiate chemical and mechanical signals involved in cell polarity, migration, proliferation and differentiation. Here, authors combine single protein tracking, super-resolution microscopy and functional assays, which allow correlating the molecular behaviour and 3D nanoscale localization of kindlin with its function in integrin activation inside FAs.

    • Thomas Orré
    • , Adrien Joly
    •  & Grégory Giannone
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Endothelial tissues must have intact barrier function, but this may be disrupted during inflammation. Here, the authors show that the mitochondrial protein Mitofusin-2 stabilizes cell–cell adherens junctions in endothelial cells during homeostasis and binds the transcriptional activator β-catenin upon inflammatory stimulation.

    • Young-Mee Kim
    • , Sarah Krantz
    •  & Jalees Rehman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Communication between endothelial leader and follower cells during collective cell migration is crucial for vascular development. Here, the authors show that PACSIN2 guides collective cell migration and angiogenesis by recruiting a protein trafficking complex to asymmetric cell-cell junctions, controlling local junction plasticity.

    • Tsveta S. Malinova
    • , Ana Angulo-Urarte
    •  & Stephan Huveneers
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The absence of scaffold protein Ambra1 leads to hyperproliferation and growth in mouse models. Here the authors show that Ambra1 deficiency accelerates melanoma growth and increases metastasis in mouse models of melanoma through FAK1 hyperactivation.

    • Luca Di Leo
    • , Valérie Bodemeyer
    •  & Francesco Cecconi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Single-molecule localisation microscopy is limited by low labeling and detection efficiencies of the molecular probes. Here the authors report a framework to obtain absolute molecular quantities on a true molecular scale; the data reveal a ternary adhesion complex underlying cell-matrix adhesion.

    • Lisa S. Fischer
    • , Christoph Klingner
    •  & Carsten Grashoff
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Contact stimulation of migration drives tissue morphogenesis. Here the authors report that filopodia-based contact-dependent asymmetry of cell–matrix adhesion drives directional movement, whereas contractile actin cables contribute to the integrity of the migrating cell cluster in the myotubes of Drosophila developing testes.

    • Maik C. Bischoff
    • , Sebastian Lieb
    •  & Sven Bogdan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cell extrusion regulates monolayer cell density and is critical in maintaining epithelia integrity, which has implications in homeostasis, development, and cancer progression. Here the authors describe how monolayer integrate mechanical signals from tissue mechanics, cell-cell adhesion, cell-substrate adhesion and cytoskeleton coordinate cell extrusion.

    • Anh Phuong Le
    • , Jean-François Rupprecht
    •  & Benoît Ladoux
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Muscle cells express an adhesion molecule called metavinculin, which has been associated with cardiomyopathies. Here, the authors employed molecular tension sensors to reveal that metavinculin expression modulates cell adhesion mechanics and they develop a mouse model to demonstrate that the presence of metavinculin is not as critical for heart muscle function as previously thought.

    • Verena Kanoldt
    • , Carleen Kluger
    •  & Carsten Grashoff
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The differential adhesion hypothesis is proposed to play a role during epithelial tissue morphogenesis but it has remained unclear. Here, the authors identify the Toll-1 receptor as a differentially expressed adhesion molecule that maintains lineage restriction boundaries in the Drosophila epidermal epithelium.

    • Norihiro Iijima
    • , Katsuhiko Sato
    •  & Daiki Umetsu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Extensive scars develop in deep wounds as opposed to superficial wounds but it is unclear why. Here, the authors use live imaging of physiologic wounds and scars formed ex vivo to show that fascia fibroblasts upregulate N-cadherin allowing coordinated cell migration that drives extensive scar formation of deep wounds.

    • Dongsheng Jiang
    • , Simon Christ
    •  & Yuval Rinkevich
  • Article
    | Open Access

    DOCK2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates RHO GTPases and interacts with ELMO1, which stimulates its GEF activity. Here, the authors provide mechanistic insights into how ELMO1 regulates DOCK2 activity by determining the structure of the DOCK2–ELMO1 binary complex representing the closed, auto-inhibited state and the DOCK2−ELMO1−RAC1 ternary complex structure, where DOCK2−ELMO1 adopts an open, active conformation.

    • Leifu Chang
    • , Jing Yang
    •  & David Barford
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In vitro models of the human mammary gland have struggled to mimic the 3D morphogenic processes that occur in vivo. Here the authors develop a 3D microfluidic platform of a vascularized human mammary duct that simulates diverse morphogenic transitions and paracrine crosstalk.

    • Matthew L. Kutys
    • , William J. Polacheck
    •  & Christopher S. Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mechanisms governing adaptation of breast cancer to the brain metastatic microenvironment are unclear. Here, the authors use RNA-sequencing and Drosophila screening to identify Rab11b-mediated endosomal recycling as a unique mechanism for adaptation to a challenging metastatic microenvironment, which can be exploited by repurposing statins.

    • Erin N. Howe
    • , Miranda D. Burnette
    •  & Siyuan Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multicellular rosettes are known to mediate complex cellular reorganization such as epithelial folding and branching during embryonal organogenesis. Here the authors show that rosette formation regulated by β-Catenin and FGFR2 mediate postnatal adrenal cortex zona glomerulosa morphogenesis.

    • Sining Leng
    • , Emanuele Pignatti
    •  & David T. Breault
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae is regulated by c-di-GMP and requires the type IV MSHA pilus. Here, Floyd et al. show that the MSHA pilus is a dynamic system, and that both extension and retraction are directly controlled by c-di-GMP via regulation of activity of the extension ATPase MshE.

    • Kyle A. Floyd
    • , Calvin K. Lee
    •  & Fitnat H. Yildiz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Leukocyte common antigen-related receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) mediate guided axon growth and synapse formation and liprin-α proteins are their intracellular binding partners. Here the authors present the crystal structure of the phosphatase domains from the LAR-RPTP family member LAR bound to the SAM repeats of liprin-α3 and show that liprin-α binding enhances LAR cluster formation and reduces LAR phosphatase activity in cells.

    • Xingqiao Xie
    • , Ling Luo
    •  & Zhiyi Wei
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many intracellular pathogens mimic extracellular matrix motifs to specifically interact with the host membrane which may influences virus particle uptake. Here authors use single molecule tension sensors to reveal the minimal forces exerted on single virus particles and demonstrate that the uptake forces scale with the adhesion energy.

    • Tina Wiegand
    • , Marta Fratini
    •  & Joachim P. Spatz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Organoid cultures have been developed from multiple tissues, opening new possibilities for regenerative medicine. Here the authors demonstrate the derivation of GMP-compliant hydrogels from decellularized porcine small intestine which support formation and growth of human gastric, liver, pancreatic and small intestinal organoids.

    • Giovanni Giuseppe Giobbe
    • , Claire Crowley
    •  & Paolo De Coppi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important mediator of integrin signaling. Here Park et al. show that mice with endothelial-specific deletion of Ilk develop vascular defects that resemble familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, and identify mutations in ILK in patients with exudative vitreoretinopathy suggesting a potential role in human pathogenesis.

    • Hongryeol Park
    • , Hiroyuki Yamamoto
    •  & Ralf H. Adams
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Podosomes are actin-based protrusions used by cells for invasion and local degradation but the structure underlying their protrusiveness and mechanosensitivity is unclear. Here, the authors report that podosomes have a modular actin nano-architecture whose organization differs on stiff or soft substrates.

    • Koen van den Dries
    • , Leila Nahidiazar
    •  & Alessandra Cambi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The role of the transmembrane glycoprotein CD47 in healing injured intestinal mucosa is unclear. Here, the authors show that selective loss of CD47 in the murine intestinal epithelium results in defective mucosal repair after colonic wounding, with suggested impaired cell migration in vitro.

    • Michelle Reed
    • , Anny-Claude Luissint
    •  & Charles A. Parkos
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Podosomes are protrusive structures that coordinate diverse functions related to cell invasion, migration, bone resorption and immune surveillance. Here the authors integrate DNA nanotechnology with FLIM-FRET to demonstrate that podosomes apply pN integrin tensile forces to sense and respond to substrate mechanics.

    • Roxanne Glazier
    • , Joshua M. Brockman
    •  & Khalid Salaita
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Pluripotent stem cell colonies are encircled by large cornerstone focal adhesions (FAs). Here, using super-resolution imaging, the authors describe features in the nanoscale makeup of these stable FAs such as inverted vinculin, lateral talin segregation and distinct kank protein distributions.

    • Aki Stubb
    • , Camilo Guzmán
    •  & Johanna Ivaska
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fiolopodia are involved in cell migration and their attachment to the ECM is mediated by integrin receptors. Here the authors show that myosin X induced filipodia adhesion to fibronectin requires activity of myosin IIA at the filopodium base and formin at the tip to support force transmission through the actin core.

    • N. O. Alieva
    • , A. K. Efremov
    •  & A. D. Bershadsky
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The extracellular matrix can shape developing organs, but how external forces direct intercellular morphogenesis is unclear. Here, the authors use 3D imaging to show that elongation of the Drosophila egg chamber involves polarized cell reorientation signalled by changes in stiffness of the surrounding extracellular matrix.

    • Dong-Yuan Chen
    • , Justin Crest
    •  & David Bilder
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The link between how the stiffness of the cornea affects stem cells is unclear. Here, the authors use Brillouin spectro-microscopy to show that mechanical properties of the cornea affect epithelial stem cells and after injury, treating the cornea with collagenase suppresses YAP activation, assisting in regeneration.

    • Ricardo M. Gouveia
    • , Guillaume Lepert
    •  & Che J. Connon