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  • Despite a considerable increase in research output over the past decades, the translation of radiomic research into clinically useful tests has been limited. In this Review, the authors provide 16 key criteria to guide the clinical translation of radiomics with the hope of accelerating the use of this technology to improve patient outcomes.

    • Erich P. Huang
    • James P. B. O’Connor
    • Lalitha K. Shankar
    Review Article
  • PADA-1 is the first trial to demonstrate benefit from a treatment-switching strategy guided by active monitoring of ESR1 mutations in plasma circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) from patients with breast cancer. The results of this trial raise important questions about the specific treatment approach tested, and the feasibility of trials incorporating longitudinal ctDNA analyses to anticipate resistance and guide treatment.

    • Ben O’Leary
    News & Views
  • The first phase III trial to test perioperative immune-checkpoint inhibitor therapy for high-risk renal cell carcinoma yielded highly promising results, leading to regulatory approvals of adjuvant pembrolizumab. However, subsequent phase III trials, including the IMmotion010 trial of adjuvant atezolizumab, did not demonstrate similar benefits. Although molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to better delineate responder subgroups, the unique design of each trial might partially explain some of the patterns identified.

    • Chris Labaki
    • Toni K. Choueiri
    News & Views
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are effective therapies for patients with relapsed and/or refractory B cell malignancies, partly owing to the ability to target B cell-specific antigens. However, CAR T cells targeting solid tumour antigens are likely to carry a higher risk of on-target, off-tumour toxicity (OTOT). Here, the authors summarize the available data on OTOT in the context of CAR T cells targeting solid tumour antigens and describe novel CAR T cell designs that might overcome such toxicities.

    • Christian L. Flugel
    • Robbie G. Majzner
    • Mohamed Abou-el-Enein
    Review Article
  • CAR T cell therapy has altered the natural history of relapsed and/or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the availability of multiple products has created provider uncertainty regarding treatment selection and the need to balance toxicity and efficacy. In a retrospective analysis, the authors suggest that axicabtagene ciloleucel might be superior to tisagenlecleucel. However, several questions remain unresolved.

    • Richard T. Maziarz
    • Jordan Gauthier
    News & Views
  • In the past decade, oncologists worldwide have seen unprecedented advances in drug development and approvals but have also become increasingly cognizant of the rising costs of and increasing inequities in access to these therapies. These trends have resulted in the current problematic situation in which dramatic disparities in outcomes exist among patients with cancer worldwide owing, in part, to the lack of access to drugs that provide clinically meaningful benefits. In this Viewpoint, we have asked six oncologists working in different countries to describe how they perceive this issue in their region and propose potential solutions.

    • Carlos Barrios
    • Gilberto de Lima Lopes
    • Manju Sengar
  • Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), which can develop in almost any organ and range from indolent neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) to rapidly progressive and fatal neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), have historically been approached in a siloed manner according to their specific tissue of origin. However, NETs and NECs across different sites of origin often share genomic and phenotypic characteristics. In this Review, the authors discuss both the clinical and biological commonalities as well as key organ-specific differences of NENs, with a focus on those of the gastrointestinal system and lung. Moreover, they advocate for a cross-cutting, tissue-agnostic approach to drug development for these rare tumours that might enable advances in one disease entity to accelerate research in others, ultimately improving patient care.

    • Kenta Kawasaki
    • Natasha Rekhtman
    • Charles M. Rudin
    Review Article
  • Owing to several limitations, including elimination by the immune system and a lack of tumour specificity, systemically administered synthetic nanoparticles are used for a limited range of cancer indications. In this Review, the authors describe the potential of cellular nanoparticles (comprising a cell membrane coating around a synthetic core) to overcome these issues as well as their application in drug delivery, phototherapy and immunotherapy.

    • Ronnie H. Fang
    • Weiwei Gao
    • Liangfang Zhang
    Review Article
  • FLASH radiotherapy involves delivering ultra-high dose rates of radiation, which enables sustained tumour control with reduced toxicity to surrounding tissues. The authors of this Perspective describe the principles underlying FLASH radiotherapy, present the available evidence from preclinical studies testing this modality and discuss the challenges for its application in routine clinical practice.

    • Marie-Catherine Vozenin
    • Jean Bourhis
    • Marco Durante
  • A high tumour mutational burden (≥10 mutations per megabase) is a companion biomarker in the histology-agnostic approval of pembrolizumab for treatment-refractory advanced-stage solid tumours, and continues to be an exploratory predictive biomarker for immune-checkpoint inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer. Herein, we discuss recent results from the first phase III trial evaluating blood-based tumour mutational burden in patients with treatment-naive advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

    • So Yeon Kim
    • Roy S. Herbst
    News & Views
  • Systemic therapies for early-stage disease have been tested in clinical trials for decades. The authors of this Review provide an overview of the evolution of (neo)adjuvant trials from the pre-genomic to the post-genomic era, focusing on design, end points and biomarkers that, together, could enable the delivery of more personalized treatment.

    • Elisa Agostinetto
    • Joseph Gligorov
    • Martine Piccart
    Review Article
  • Either alone or in combination, chemotherapy remains the mainstay treatment for most human malignancies. This treatment modality is associated with a high burden of chemotherapy-associated adverse events (CAAEs) that greatly affect patients because of their considerable morbidity, mortality and costs. Kuderer et al. discuss the pathophysiology, management and risk factors of the most common acute CAAEs with a major effect on survival, quality of life, function and/or continuation of optimal therapy.

    • Nicole M. Kuderer
    • Aakash Desai
    • Gary H. Lyman
    Review Article