Volume 9 Issue 7, July 2008

Volume 9 Issue 7

Bacterial flagellin binds to and stimulates TLR5. Akira and colleagues (p 769) show that TLR5 stimulation of CD11chiCD11bhi small intestine lamina propria DCs induces the release of retinoic acid, which promotes the differentiation of IgA-producing B cells and IL-17-producing T cells. The original image (by Satoshi Uematsu and Jang Myoung Ho) shows CD11chiCD11bhi small intestine lamina propria DCs (purple). Artwork by Lewis Long.


  • Editorial |

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded jointly to Paul Ehrlich and Ilya Metchnikov.

  • Editorial |

    A vibrant and eclectic international immunology meeting recently took place in the Arabian Desert of the United Arab Emirates, in the heart of the Islamic world.

Meeting Reports

  • Meeting Report |

    This report presents themes highlighted during the eclectic and stimulating Metchnikoff's Legacy in 2008 meeting hosted at the Institut Pasteur in April 2008 in honor of the 100th anniversary of the 1908 Nobel Prize.

    • Carl Nathan
  • Meeting Report |

    Increasing evidence suggests that immune mechanisms underlie major inflammatory diseases that show no overt microbial etiology. In this context, a 4-day conference of clinical and nonclinical scientists convened in the United Arab Emirates to consider recent research developments in this fast-moving field.

    • Basel al-Ramadi
    • , Adrian Hayday
    •  & Wilhelm Schwaeble

Historical Commentary

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    CIITA encodes the 'master regulator' of the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II genes. A new layer of complexity has been identified in the control of CIITA expression, which involves the formation of a complex three-dimensional chromatin structure promoted by interactions among many distant regulatory elements.

    • Walter Reith
    •  & Jeremy M Boss
  • News & Views |

    Transcription factors of the Ets family are important for mammalian development. A genetic screen now finds that the Ets family member Erg is essential for definitive hematopoiesis and adult hematopoietic stem cell function.

    • Ellen V Rothenberg
  • News & Views |

    Neutrophils can respond to many chemotactic signals, but how these cells 'prioritize' such signals to react to invading pathogens has remained unclear. The phosphatase PTEN seems to be critical in directing the migration of neutrophils toward their end target in a complex milieu of competing signals.

    • Daniel D Billadeau
  • News & Views |

    The mechanisms responsible for establishing allelic exclusion remain enigmatic. New data indicate that stochastic interactions of antigen-receptor alleles with repressive nuclear compartments may contribute to the mechanisms that support allelic exclusion.

    • Cornelis Murre
  • News & Views |

    Additional immune functions of basophils have been identified in recent years. Mack and colleagues add to this growing list by showing that basophils enhance humoral memory responses by producing interleukins 4 and 6 in response to specific antigen.

    • Toshiaki Kawakami



  • Article |

    Basophils are associated mainly with allergy and immune responses to parasites. Mack and colleagues now show that 'antigen-specific' basophils contribute to the humoral memory response by supplying interleukins 4 and 6.

    • Andrea Denzel
    • , Ulrich A Maus
    • , Manuel Rodriguez Gomez
    • , Cordula Moll
    • , Marianne Niedermeier
    • , Christine Winter
    • , Regina Maus
    • , Susan Hollingshead
    • , David E Briles
    • , Leoni A Kunz-Schughart
    • , Yvonne Talke
    •  & Matthias Mack
  • Article |

    Complement 5 (C5) generates the C5a anaphylatoxin and C5b, a component of the membrane attack complex. Andersen and colleagues present the crystal structure of C5 and identify similarities and differences between C5 and other complement proteins.

    • Folmer Fredslund
    • , Nick S Laursen
    • , Pietro Roversi
    • , Lasse Jenner
    • , Cristiano L P Oliveira
    • , Jan S Pedersen
    • , Miles A Nunn
    • , Susan M Lea
    • , Richard Discipio
    • , Lars Sottrup-Jensen
    •  & Gregers R Andersen
  • Article |

    Mechanisms facilitating Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand recognition are incompletely understood. De Diego and colleagues show that integrin β3 and the serum protein vitronectin are essential for responsiveness to a panel of TLR2 agonists.

    • Gisa Gerold
    • , Khalid Abu Ajaj
    • , Michael Bienert
    • , Hans-Jürgen Laws
    • , Arturo Zychlinsky
    •  & Juana L de Diego
  • Article |

    The characteristics of the cell type(s) responsible for initiating protective gut immune responses are not fully defined. Akira and colleagues show that TLR5+ lamina propria dendritic cells trigger, in a retinoic-dependent way, the production of interleukin 17 and immunoglobulin A.

    • Satoshi Uematsu
    • , Kosuke Fujimoto
    • , Myoung Ho Jang
    • , Bo-Gie Yang
    • , Yun-Jae Jung
    • , Mika Nishiyama
    • , Shintaro Sato
    • , Tohru Tsujimura
    • , Masafumi Yamamoto
    • , Yoshifumi Yokota
    • , Hiroshi Kiyono
    • , Masayuki Miyasaka
    • , Ken J Ishii
    •  & Shizuo Akira
  • Article |

    Developing thymocytes carry out precise assembly of D-to-J followed by V-to-DJ rearrangements at the Tcrb locus. Liu and colleagues show that the transcription factor Fos directs ordered temporal recombination of D segments.

    • Xiaoming Wang
    • , Gang Xiao
    • , Yafeng Zhang
    • , Xiaomin Wen
    • , Xiang Gao
    • , Seiji Okada
    •  & Xiaolong Liu
  • Article |

    Ets family transcription factors function in mammalian development. Kile and colleagues demonstrate that the Ets family member Erg is essential for definitive hematopoiesis and adult hematopoietic stem cell function.

    • Stephen J Loughran
    • , Elizabeth A Kruse
    • , Douglas F Hacking
    • , Carolyn A de Graaf
    • , Craig D Hyland
    • , Tracy A Willson
    • , Katya J Henley
    • , Sarah Ellis
    • , Anne K Voss
    • , Donald Metcalf
    • , Douglas J Hilton
    • , Warren S Alexander
    •  & Benjamin T Kile