Volume 17 Issue 7, July 2016

Volume 17 Issue 7

Microglia progenitors seed the central nervous system from the yolk sac; however, little is known about the origin of non-parenchymal macrophages. Prinz and colleagues (p 797; see News and Views by Greter, p 742) demonstrate that these central nervous system macrophages are related to, but distinct from, microglia and are largely of embryonic origin. The original image by Marta Joana Costa Jordao shows meningeal macrophages (green) within the leptomeninges (red). Artwork by Lewis Long.

Correspondence

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Perivascular and subdural meningeal macrophages at the interface between the central nervous system and the periphery are self-renewing and arise from early embryonic precursors. Macrophages residing in the choroid plexus have dual origin, developing from circulating bone-marrow-derived monocytes and embryonic progenitors.

    • Melanie Greter
  • News & Views |

    B cell and T cell memory differentiation requires the transcription factor Bach2, which inhibits the effector-cell fate by limiting antigen-receptor-stimulation-induced gene expression and restricting premature expression of the transcriptional regulator Blimp-1.

    • Tom Sidwell
    •  & Axel Kallies
  • News & Views |

    In natural killer (NK) cells, CIS restrains a signaling pathway elicited by interleukin 15 (IL-15) that leads to activation of the kinase JAK1. Removal of CIS from NK cells increases their capacity to reduce the metastatic dissemination of breast cancer and melanoma in mice.

    • Laurence Zitvogel
    •  & Guido Kroemer

Research Highlights

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Innate lymphoid cells serve multiple roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis and responding to tissue insults and can contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases.

Comment

Reviews

Perspectives

  • Perspective |

    The redundant or specialized roles of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) relative to those of T cells in vivo remain hard to delineate experimentally. Bando and Colonna review the current understanding of the specialized in vivo functions of ILCs and discuss the genetic mouse models used to assess the contributions of ILCs versus those of T cells.

    • Jennifer K Bando
    •  & Marco Colonna
  • Perspective |

    The appearance of innate lymphoid cells was a major step in the evolution of vertebrate immunity. In their Perspective, Vivier et al. survey these cells in evolution and their functional inter-relationship with conventional T cells and B cells.

    • Eric Vivier
    • , Serge A van de Pavert
    • , Max D Cooper
    •  & Gabrielle T Belz

Articles

  • Article |

    Microglia progenitors seed the central nervous system from the yolk sac, but little is known about the origin of non-parenchymal macrophages. Prinz and colleagues demonstrate that these macrophages in the central nervous system are related to but distinct from microglia and are largely of embryonic origin.

    • Tobias Goldmann
    • , Peter Wieghofer
    • , Marta Joana Costa Jordão
    • , Fabiola Prutek
    • , Nora Hagemeyer
    • , Kathrin Frenzel
    • , Lukas Amann
    • , Ori Staszewski
    • , Katrin Kierdorf
    • , Martin Krueger
    • , Giuseppe Locatelli
    • , Hannah Hochgerner
    • , Robert Zeiser
    • , Slava Epelman
    • , Frederic Geissmann
    • , Josef Priller
    • , Fabio M V Rossi
    • , Ingo Bechmann
    • , Martin Kerschensteiner
    • , Sten Linnarsson
    • , Steffen Jung
    •  & Marco Prinz
  • Article |

    The DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a has not been studied in innate immunity. Cao and colleagues show that Dnmt3a enhances antiviral responses via a non-canonical mechanism to activate the kinase TBK1 and the production of type I interferons in macrophages.

    • Xia Li
    • , Qian Zhang
    • , Yuanyuan Ding
    • , Yiqi Liu
    • , Dezhi Zhao
    • , Kai Zhao
    • , Qicong Shen
    • , Xingguang Liu
    • , Xuhui Zhu
    • , Nan Li
    • , Zhongyi Cheng
    • , Guoping Fan
    • , Qingqing Wang
    •  & Xuetao Cao
  • Article |

    IL-15-driven NK cells mediate anti-tumor immunity, but how IL-15 is negatively regulated remains unclear. Huntington and colleagues find that CIS, a member of the suppressor of cytokine signaling family, suppresses the response to IL-15 and, as a result, CIS-deficient mice are more resistant to cancer metastasis.

    • Rebecca B Delconte
    • , Tatiana B Kolesnik
    • , Laura F Dagley
    • , Jai Rautela
    • , Wei Shi
    • , Eva M Putz
    • , Kimberley Stannard
    • , Jian-Guo Zhang
    • , Charis Teh
    • , Matt Firth
    • , Takashi Ushiki
    • , Christopher E Andoniou
    • , Mariapia A Degli-Esposti
    • , Phillip P Sharp
    • , Caroline E Sanvitale
    • , Giuseppe Infusini
    • , Nicholas P D Liau
    • , Edmond M Linossi
    • , Christopher J Burns
    • , Sebastian Carotta
    • , Daniel H D Gray
    • , Cyril Seillet
    • , Dana S Hutchinson
    • , Gabrielle T Belz
    • , Andrew I Webb
    • , Warren S Alexander
    • , Shawn S Li
    • , Alex N Bullock
    • , Jeffery J Babon
    • , Mark J Smyth
    • , Sandra E Nicholson
    •  & Nicholas D Huntington
  • Article |

    Signaling via the inducible costimulator ICOS drives the stepwise development of follicular helper T cells. Kong and colleagues describe an ICOS–kinase TBK1 signaling pathway that specifies the commitment of these cells.

    • Christophe Pedros
    • , Yaoyang Zhang
    • , Joyce K Hu
    • , Youn Soo Choi
    • , Ann J Canonigo-Balancio
    • , John R Yates III
    • , Amnon Altman
    • , Shane Crotty
    •  & Kok-Fai Kong
  • Article |

    Activation of CD4+ T cells leads to their polarization to various effector states. Goldrath and colleagues identify a role for the E-protein inhibitor Id2 in promoting TH1 cell polarization over TFH cell polarization. Reciprocally, the transcription factor Bcl-6 represses Id2 expression in TFH cells.

    • Laura A Shaw
    • , Simon Bélanger
    • , Kyla D Omilusik
    • , Sunglim Cho
    • , James P Scott-Browne
    • , J Philip Nance
    • , John Goulding
    • , Anna Lasorella
    • , Li-Fan Lu
    • , Shane Crotty
    •  & Ananda W Goldrath
  • Article |

    T cell activation upon TCR signaling can lead to development of effector and memory cells. Roychoudhuri and colleagues show that the transcription factor BACH2 promotes memory CD8+ T cell generation by blocking access to genomic regulatory sites recognized by AP-1.

    • Rahul Roychoudhuri
    • , David Clever
    • , Peng Li
    • , Yoshiyuki Wakabayashi
    • , Kylie M Quinn
    • , Christopher A Klebanoff
    • , Yun Ji
    • , Madhusudhanan Sukumar
    • , Robert L Eil
    • , Zhiya Yu
    • , Rosanne Spolski
    • , Douglas C Palmer
    • , Jenny H Pan
    • , Shashank J Patel
    • , Derek C Macallan
    • , Giulia Fabozzi
    • , Han-Yu Shih
    • , Yuka Kanno
    • , Akihiko Muto
    • , Jun Zhu
    • , Luca Gattinoni
    • , John J O'Shea
    • , Klaus Okkenhaug
    • , Kazuhiko Igarashi
    • , Warren J Leonard
    •  & Nicholas P Restifo
  • Article |

    T cells provide help to B cells in germinal centers. Kurosaki and colleagues show that B cells of lower affinity receive weaker T cell help. This scenario results in higher expression of the transcriptional repressor Bach2 and promotes the development of memory B cells.

    • Ryo Shinnakasu
    • , Takeshi Inoue
    • , Kohei Kometani
    • , Saya Moriyama
    • , Yu Adachi
    • , Manabu Nakayama
    • , Yoshimasa Takahashi
    • , Hidehiro Fukuyama
    • , Takaharu Okada
    •  & Tomohiro Kurosaki

Resource

  • Resource |

    Austen and colleagues assess the transcriptional profiles of mast cells isolated from peripheral connective tissues and basophils isolated from spleen and blood. Mast cells show a unique tissue profile and minimal homology with basophils or other immunocytes.

    • Daniel F Dwyer
    • , Nora A Barrett
    • , K Frank Austen
    • , The Immunological Genome Project Consortium
    • , Daniel F Dwyer
    • , Nora A Barrett
    • , K Frank Austen
    • , Edy Y Kim
    • , Michael B Brenner
    • , Laura Shaw
    • , Bingfei Yu
    • , Ananda Goldrath
    • , Sara Mostafavi
    • , Aviv Regev
    • , Andrew Rhoades
    • , Devapregasan Moodley
    • , Hideyuki Yoshida
    • , Diane Mathis
    • , Christophe Benoist
    • , Tsukasa Nabekura
    • , Viola Lam
    • , Lewis L Lanier
    • , Brian Brown
    • , Miriam Merad
    • , Viviana Cremasco
    • , Shannon Turley
    • , Paul Monach
    • , Michael L Dustin
    • , Yuesheng Li
    • , Susan A Shinton
    • , Richard R Hardy
    • , Tal Shay
    • , Yilin Qi
    • , Katelyn Sylvia
    • , Joonsoo Kang
    • , Keke Fairfax
    • , Gwendalyn J Randolph
    • , Michelle L Robinette
    • , Anja Fuchs
    •  & Marco Colonna