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  • Akin to adult stem cells, precursor exhausted T cells are hierarchically organized, with long-lived CD62L+ stem-like T cells at the apex of the system. The transcription factor c-Myb controls the formation, maintenance and therapeutic function of these cells, with important implications for their clinical utilization.

    • Christoph Heuser
    • Luca Gattinoni
    News & Views
    • Nicholas J. Bernard
    Research Highlight
  • Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccine recipients differ in infection history and the magnitude of their elicited antibody response. A large human cohort distinguished by these parameters are queried for effector T cell subsets, memory B cells and ability to recognize epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

    • Andrea J. Sant
    • Patrick C. Wilson
    News & Views
  • m1A58 is a common tRNA modification that can influence protein translational efficiency. Here Liu et al. reveal that tRNA methylation controls in vivo T cell activation by enhancing translation of the key transcription factor Myc.

    • Julia M. Marchingo
    News & Views
  • On 3–8 June 2022, the First International Aegean Conference on Mesenchymal Cells in Health & Disease took place in Chania, Crete, and brought together clinicians and scientists who work on mesenchymal or stromal cell biology across different fields including immunity, inflammation and cancer.

    • Vasiliki Koliaraki
    • Gian-Paolo Dotto
    • George Kollias
    Meeting Report
  • Immunotherapeutic targeting of the surface glycoprotein CD19 has markedly improved outcomes in patients with relapsed and refractory B cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 screening identifies modulators of CD19 mRNA processing that affect the abundance of the surface protein in human B cell leukemia cells, with the potential to improve antigen-directed immunotherapy efficacy.

    Research Briefing
  • During T cell activation, tRNA-m1A ‘writers’ TRMT61A and TRMT6 are upregulated to modify a group of early tRNA species and promote efficient translation of certain pre-cell-cycling proteins, thus ensuring rapid T cell proliferation and a timely adaptive immune response.

    Research Briefing
  • Endosomal TLR7 and TLR9 recognize RNA and DNA ligands, respectively, and both signal via MyD88 yet appear to play opposing roles in autoimmunity. Shlomchik and colleagues examine this TLR ‘paradox’, reporting that TLR9 has two protective functions, including an as yet unidentified additional MyD88-independent signaling pathway that confers protection against autoimmunity.

    • Claire Leibler
    • Shinu John
    • Mark J. Shlomchik
  • Naive T cells are quiescent but undergo dynamic changes upon antigenic activation. Li and colleagues show that upregulation of tRNA methyltransferase complex TRMT61A–TRMT6 and N1-methyladenosine modification of tRNAs contribute to accelerated mRNA translation efficiency, in particular that of MYC protein, and are required for rapid T cell proliferation.

    • Yongbo Liu
    • Jing Zhou
    • Hua-Bing Li
  • The explosion of single-cell and systems approaches in immunology risks leaving the uninitiated behind. This guide to systems immunology is designed for immunologists who want an introduction to the area.

    • Lorenzo Bonaguro
    • Jonas Schulte-Schrepping
    • Joachim L. Schultze
    Review Article