Perspectives

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  • Perspective |

    As road transport emissions are set to grow, stronger policy mixes are needed to reach mitigation goals. This Perspective considers the evidence for several policy types—strong regulation, pricing and reduced travel—and the best combination to reduce emissions for passenger and freight vehicles.

    • Jonn Axsen
    • , Patrick Plötz
    •  & Michael Wolinetz
  • Perspective |

    In recent decades, the Arctic has warmed at over twice the global rate. This Perspective places these trends into the context of abrupt Dansgaard–Oeschger warming events in the palaeoclimate record, arguing that the contemporary Arctic is undergoing comparably abrupt climate change.

    • Eystein Jansen
    • , Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen
    • , Trond Dokken
    • , Kerim H. Nisancioglu
    • , Bo M. Vinther
    • , Emilie Capron
    • , Chuncheng Guo
    • , Mari F. Jensen
    • , Peter L. Langen
    • , Rasmus A. Pedersen
    • , Shuting Yang
    • , Mats Bentsen
    • , Helle A. Kjær
    • , Henrik Sadatzki
    • , Evangeline Sessford
    •  & Martin Stendel
  • Perspective |

    Reference scenarios are used to evaluate different mitigation scenarios, allowing understanding of their relative strengths and weaknesses. This Perspective considers the appropriate use of reference scenarios in mitigation analysis across different policy contexts.

    • Neil Grant
    • , Adam Hawkes
    • , Tamaryn Napp
    •  & Ajay Gambhir
  • Perspective |

    The impacts of extreme weather and climate can be amplified by physical interactions among events and across a complex set of societal factors. This Perspective discusses the concept and challenge of connected extreme events, exploring research approaches and decision-making strategies.

    • Colin Raymond
    • , Radley M. Horton
    • , Jakob Zscheischler
    • , Olivia Martius
    • , Amir AghaKouchak
    • , Jennifer Balch
    • , Steven G. Bowen
    • , Suzana J. Camargo
    • , Jeremy Hess
    • , Kai Kornhuber
    • , Michael Oppenheimer
    • , Alex C. Ruane
    • , Thomas Wahl
    •  & Kathleen White
  • Perspective |

    In order to limit warming and the most severe consequences of climate change, net global carbon emissions must reach zero by 2050. Many ecosystems contain carbon that would be irrecoverable on this timescale if lost and must be protected to meet climate goals.

    • Allie Goldstein
    • , Will R. Turner
    • , Seth A. Spawn
    • , Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira
    • , Susan Cook-Patton
    • , Joseph Fargione
    • , Holly K. Gibbs
    • , Bronson Griscom
    • , Jennifer H. Hewson
    • , Jennifer F. Howard
    • , Juan Carlos Ledezma
    • , Susan Page
    • , Lian Pin Koh
    • , Johan Rockström
    • , Jonathan Sanderman
    •  & David G. Hole
  • Perspective |

    Climate change and other human activities are decreasing ocean oxygen content. This Perspective considers the limited data on effects to coral reefs, including oxygen thresholds for lethal and sub-lethal effects in coral reef taxa, and proposes key research questions to address this critical issue.

    • David J. Hughes
    • , Rachel Alderdice
    • , Christopher Cooney
    • , Michael Kühl
    • , Mathieu Pernice
    • , Christian R. Voolstra
    •  & David J. Suggett
  • Perspective |

    Climate change detection is confounded by internal variability, but recent initial-condition large ensembles (LEs) have begun addressing this issue. This Perspective discusses the value of multi-model LEs, the challenges of providing them and their role in future climate change research.

    • C. Deser
    • , F. Lehner
    • , K. B. Rodgers
    • , T. Ault
    • , T. L. Delworth
    • , P. N. DiNezio
    • , A. Fiore
    • , C. Frankignoul
    • , J. C. Fyfe
    • , D. E. Horton
    • , J. E. Kay
    • , R. Knutti
    • , N. S. Lovenduski
    • , J. Marotzke
    • , K. A. McKinnon
    • , S. Minobe
    • , J. Randerson
    • , J. A. Screen
    • , I. R. Simpson
    •  & M. Ting
  • Perspective |

    Flash droughts, which develop over the course of weeks, are difficult to forecast given the current state of subseasonal-to-seasonal prediction. This Perspective offers operational and research definitions, places them in the broader context of climate and suggests avenues for future research.

    • Angeline G. Pendergrass
    • , Gerald A. Meehl
    • , Roger Pulwarty
    • , Mike Hobbins
    • , Andrew Hoell
    • , Amir AghaKouchak
    • , Céline J. W. Bonfils
    • , Ailie J. E. Gallant
    • , Martin Hoerling
    • , David Hoffmann
    • , Laurna Kaatz
    • , Flavio Lehner
    • , Dagmar Llewellyn
    • , Philip Mote
    • , Richard B. Neale
    • , Jonathan T. Overpeck
    • , Amanda Sheffield
    • , Kerstin Stahl
    • , Mark Svoboda
    • , Matthew C. Wheeler
    • , Andrew W. Wood
    •  & Connie A. Woodhouse
  • Perspective |

    As tundra ecosystems respond to rapid Arctic warming, satellite records suggest a widespread greening. This Perspective highlights the challenges of interpreting complex Arctic greening trends and provides direction for future research by combining ecological and remote sensing approaches.

    • Isla H. Myers-Smith
    • , Jeffrey T. Kerby
    • , Gareth K. Phoenix
    • , Jarle W. Bjerke
    • , Howard E. Epstein
    • , Jakob J. Assmann
    • , Christian John
    • , Laia Andreu-Hayles
    • , Sandra Angers-Blondin
    • , Pieter S. A. Beck
    • , Logan T. Berner
    • , Uma S. Bhatt
    • , Anne D. Bjorkman
    • , Daan Blok
    • , Anders Bryn
    • , Casper T. Christiansen
    • , J. Hans C. Cornelissen
    • , Andrew M. Cunliffe
    • , Sarah C. Elmendorf
    • , Bruce C. Forbes
    • , Scott J. Goetz
    • , Robert D. Hollister
    • , Rogier de Jong
    • , Michael M. Loranty
    • , Marc Macias-Fauria
    • , Kadmiel Maseyk
    • , Signe Normand
    • , Johan Olofsson
    • , Thomas C. Parker
    • , Frans-Jan W. Parmentier
    • , Eric Post
    • , Gabriela Schaepman-Strub
    • , Frode Stordal
    • , Patrick F. Sullivan
    • , Haydn J. D. Thomas
    • , Hans Tømmervik
    • , Rachael Treharne
    • , Craig E. Tweedie
    • , Donald A. Walker
    • , Martin Wilmking
    •  & Sonja Wipf
  • Perspective |

    Climate change is likely to increase human migration, but future climate-related migration flows will depend heavily on the adaptive capacity of people living in vulnerable regions and on the border policies of potential destination countries. Current opportunities for mobility are constrained by increasingly strict border enforcement and the securitization of international migration.

    • Robert McLeman
  • Perspective |

    Model estimates of future hydroclimate are uncertain, especially at the regional scale. This Perspective argues that constraining model runoff and its sensitivity to precipitation and temperature can greatly reduce this uncertainty and improve climate model utility in water resource applications.

    • Flavio Lehner
    • , Andrew W. Wood
    • , Julie A. Vano
    • , David M. Lawrence
    • , Martyn P. Clark
    •  & Justin S. Mankin
  • Perspective |

    In this Perspective, the authors argue that defining the climate change problem as one of decarbonization rather than emissions reduction suggests a new guiding metaphor — the global fractal — which may be a more productive conceptualization for research and policy than the global commons.

    • Steven Bernstein
    •  & Matthew Hoffmann
  • Perspective |

    Ecosystem response to climate change will vary in amplitude and dynamically, which may not be captured in current experimental design. This Perspective presents experimental design improvements to better predict responses and thus facilitate understanding of future impacts.

    • Francois Rineau
    • , Robert Malina
    • , Natalie Beenaerts
    • , Natascha Arnauts
    • , Richard D. Bardgett
    • , Matty P. Berg
    • , Annelies Boerema
    • , Liesbeth Bruckers
    • , Jan Clerinx
    • , Edouard L. Davin
    • , Hans J. De Boeck
    • , Tom De Dobbelaer
    • , Marta Dondini
    • , Frederik De Laender
    • , Jacintha Ellers
    • , Oscar Franken
    • , Lucy Gilbert
    • , Lukas Gudmundsson
    • , Ivan A. Janssens
    • , David Johnson
    • , Sebastien Lizin
    • , Bernard Longdoz
    • , Patrick Meire
    • , Dominique Meremans
    • , Ann Milbau
    • , Michele Moretti
    • , Ivan Nijs
    • , Anne Nobel
    • , Iuliu Sorin Pop
    • , Thomas Puetz
    • , Wouter Reyns
    • , Jacques Roy
    • , Jochen Schuetz
    • , Sonia I. Seneviratne
    • , Pete Smith
    • , Francesca Solmi
    • , Jan Staes
    • , Wim Thiery
    • , Sofie Thijs
    • , Inne Vanderkelen
    • , Wouter Van Landuyt
    • , Erik Verbruggen
    • , Nele Witters
    • , Jakob Zscheischler
    •  & Jaco Vangronsveld
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective describes persecution, protection and ignorance archetypes for managing and monitoring species redistribution under climate change, and argues for global shared governance agreements to cope with species shifts into new geopolitical areas.

    • Brett R. Scheffers
    •  & Gretta Pecl
  • Perspective |

    Top-down studies of climate change use climate projections and modelled impacts, whereas bottom-up assessments focus on the recent past and present vulnerability. This Perspective argues that these approaches must be integrated to address the needs of immediate adaptation decisions.

    • Declan Conway
    • , Robert J. Nicholls
    • , Sally Brown
    • , Mark G. L. Tebboth
    • , William Neil Adger
    • , Bashir Ahmad
    • , Hester Biemans
    • , Florence Crick
    • , Arthur F. Lutz
    • , Ricardo Safra De Campos
    • , Mohammed Said
    • , Chandni Singh
    • , Modathir Abdalla Hassan Zaroug
    • , Eva Ludi
    • , Mark New
    •  & Philippus Wester
  • Perspective |

    The Paris Agreement places new emphasis on the need to take stock of adaptation progress. This Perspective discusses the conceptual and methodological challenges associated with monitoring adaptation and provides a comprehensive framework for tracking progress among governments.

    • Lea Berrang-Ford
    • , Robbert Biesbroek
    • , James D. Ford
    • , Alexandra Lesnikowski
    • , Andrew Tanabe
    • , Frances M. Wang
    • , Chen Chen
    • , Angel Hsu
    • , Jessica J. Hellmann
    • , Patrick Pringle
    • , Martina Grecequet
    • , J.-C. Amado
    • , Saleemul Huq
    • , Shuaib Lwasa
    •  & S. Jody Heymann
  • Perspective |

    The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project develops a framework to design low-emission development pathways. This Perspective discusses the framework and how it can support the development of national strategies to meet climate targets, as well as help achieve stakeholder engagement.

    • Henri Waisman
    • , Chris Bataille
    • , Harald Winkler
    • , Frank Jotzo
    • , Priyadarshi Shukla
    • , Michel Colombier
    • , Daniel Buira
    • , Patrick Criqui
    • , Manfred Fischedick
    • , Mikiko Kainuma
    • , Emilio La Rovere
    • , Steve Pye
    • , George Safonov
    • , Ucok Siagian
    • , Fei Teng
    • , Maria-Rosa Virdis
    • , Jim Williams
    • , Soogil Young
    • , Gabrial Anandarajah
    • , Rizaldi Boer
    • , Yongsun Cho
    • , Amandine Denis-Ryan
    • , Subash Dhar
    • , Maria Gaeta
    • , Claudio Gesteira
    • , Ben Haley
    • , Jean-Charles Hourcade
    • , Qiang Liu
    • , Oleg Lugovoy
    • , Toshihiko Masui
    • , Sandrine Mathy
    • , Ken Oshiro
    • , Ramiro Parrado
    • , Minal Pathak
    • , Vladimir Potashnikov
    • , Sascha Samadi
    • , David Sawyer
    • , Thomas Spencer
    • , Jordi Tovilla
    •  & Hilton Trollip
  • Perspective |

    Emergent constraints can be an evaluation tool for Earth System Models. This Perspective discusses emergent constraints, how they should be assessed, and when these statistical relationships can be confirmed and used to improve understanding of the changing climate system.

    • Alex Hall
    • , Peter Cox
    • , Chris Huntingford
    •  & Stephen Klein
  • Perspective |

    Big data is increasingly popular in many research domains. This Perspective discusses where elements of big data approaches have been employed in climate research and where combining big data with theory-driven research can be most fruitful.

    • Benedikt Knüsel
    • , Marius Zumwald
    • , Christoph Baumberger
    • , Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn
    • , Erich M. Fischer
    • , David N. Bresch
    •  & Reto Knutti
  • Perspective |

    The Paris Agreement requires substantial changes in the land system. However, national implementation plans are vague, largely insufficient and unlikely to be fully achieved. Realistic policies require proper consideration of land-system lags.

    • Calum Brown
    • , Peter Alexander
    • , Almut Arneth
    • , Ian Holman
    •  & Mark Rounsevell
  • Perspective |

    Near-term climate predictions bridge the gap between seasonal forecasts and long-term projections. This Perspective outlines the challenges and opportunities for near-term climate prediction, highlighting the need for co-ordinated efforts to benefit society.

    • Yochanan Kushnir
    • , Adam A. Scaife
    • , Raymond Arritt
    • , Gianpaolo Balsamo
    • , George Boer
    • , Francisco Doblas-Reyes
    • , Ed Hawkins
    • , Masahide Kimoto
    • , Rupa Kumar Kolli
    • , Arun Kumar
    • , Daniela Matei
    • , Katja Matthes
    • , Wolfgang A. Müller
    • , Terence O’Kane
    • , Judith Perlwitz
    • , Scott Power
    • , Marilyn Raphael
    • , Akihiko Shimpo
    • , Doug Smith
    • , Matthias Tuma
    •  & Bo Wu
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective synthesizes research on the origins and impacts of scientific misinformation campaigns, pointing to public inoculation, legal, political and financial strategies for countering climate change misinformation and limiting its dissemination.

    • Justin Farrell
    • , Kathryn McConnell
    •  & Robert Brulle
  • Perspective |

    Earth system models project likely future climates, however, evaluation of their output is challenging. This Perspective discusses new evaluation approaches, considering both simulations and observations, to ensure credible information for decision-making.

    • Veronika Eyring
    • , Peter M. Cox
    • , Gregory M. Flato
    • , Peter J. Gleckler
    • , Gab Abramowitz
    • , Peter Caldwell
    • , William D. Collins
    • , Bettina K. Gier
    • , Alex D. Hall
    • , Forrest M. Hoffman
    • , George C. Hurtt
    • , Alexandra Jahn
    • , Chris D. Jones
    • , Stephen A. Klein
    • , John P. Krasting
    • , Lester Kwiatkowski
    • , Ruth Lorenz
    • , Eric Maloney
    • , Gerald A. Meehl
    • , Angeline G. Pendergrass
    • , Robert Pincus
    • , Alex C. Ruane
    • , Joellen L. Russell
    • , Benjamin M. Sanderson
    • , Benjamin D. Santer
    • , Steven C. Sherwood
    • , Isla R. Simpson
    • , Ronald J. Stouffer
    •  & Mark S. Williamson
  • Perspective |

    Global climate change governance has seen an increase in action beyond national governments. This Perspective sets forth a research agenda and recommendations for evaluating non-state and subnational climate mitigation action.

    • Angel Hsu
    • , Niklas Höhne
    • , Takeshi Kuramochi
    • , Mark Roelfsema
    • , Amy Weinfurter
    • , Yihao Xie
    • , Katharina Lütkehermöller
    • , Sander Chan
    • , Jan Corfee-Morlot
    • , Philip Drost
    • , Pedro Faria
    • , Ann Gardiner
    • , David J. Gordon
    • , Thomas Hale
    • , Nathan E Hultman
    • , John Moorhead
    • , Shirin Reuvers
    • , Joana Setzer
    • , Neelam Singh
    • , Christopher Weber
    •  & Oscar Widerberg
  • Perspective |

    The Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the leading mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropical atmosphere. This Perspective examines how the MJO may change with anthropogenic warming, revealing a projected increase in MJO-related precipitation.

    • Eric D. Maloney
    • , Ángel F. Adames
    •  & Hien X. Bui
  • Perspective |

    Investors are increasingly asking businesses to disclose their climate risk and corresponding management strategies. A review of corporate adaptation strategies reveals limited consideration of broader risks to supply chains, customers and employees.

    • Allie Goldstein
    • , Will R. Turner
    • , Jillian Gladstone
    •  & David G. Hole
  • Perspective |

    Climate policy is heavily focused on reducing demand for fossil fuels, but supply-side polices represent a potentially powerful tool to reduce CO2 emissions. This Perspective uses the US state of California as a case study to explore the rationale and possible impacts of limiting oil production.

    • Peter Erickson
    • , Michael Lazarus
    •  & Georgia Piggot
  • Perspective |

    With warming, meltwater will play an increasingly important role in driving ice loss from Antarctica, raising global sea levels. This Perspective discusses the key process through which Antarctic surface hydrology impacts mass balance.

    • Robin E. Bell
    • , Alison F. Banwell
    • , Luke D. Trusel
    •  & Jonathan Kingslake
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective provides an overview of the snow–sea ice systems in the Arctic and Antarctic, offering insight on how current uncertainties can be reduced, and future challenges met, to improve understanding of polar climate change.

    • Melinda Webster
    • , Sebastian Gerland
    • , Marika Holland
    • , Elizabeth Hunke
    • , Ron Kwok
    • , Olivier Lecomte
    • , Robert Massom
    • , Don Perovich
    •  & Matthew Sturm
  • Perspective |

    Meeting the Paris Agreement climate goals requires increasingly ambitious climate policy. A framework for ratcheting up stringency through policy sequencing is proposed and illustrated using the cases of Germany and California, USA.

    • Michael Pahle
    • , Dallas Burtraw
    • , Christian Flachsland
    • , Nina Kelsey
    • , Eric Biber
    • , Jonas Meckling
    • , Ottmar Edenhofer
    •  & John Zysman
  • Perspective |

    Ambitious carbon pricing reform is needed to meet climate targets. This Perspective argues that effective revenue recycling schemes should prioritize behavioural considerations that are aimed at achieving greater political acceptance.

    • David Klenert
    • , Linus Mattauch
    • , Emmanuel Combet
    • , Ottmar Edenhofer
    • , Cameron Hepburn
    • , Ryan Rafaty
    •  & Nicholas Stern
  • Perspective |

    Ocean acidification, a result of increased levels of CO2, impacts the marine environment and its biology. This Perspective presents the current understanding of the issue and highlights future directions for research.

    • Catriona L. Hurd
    • , Andrew Lenton
    • , Bronte Tilbrook
    •  & Philip W. Boyd
  • Perspective |

    A press–pulse framework is used to understand the interactive ecological effects of gradual climate trends and extreme weather events. Australian case studies include population collapses, loss of relictual communities and novel ecosystems.

    • R. M. B. Harris
    • , L. J. Beaumont
    • , T. R. Vance
    • , C. R. Tozer
    • , T. A. Remenyi
    • , S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick
    • , P. J. Mitchell
    • , A. B. Nicotra
    • , S. McGregor
    • , N. R. Andrew
    • , M. Letnic
    • , M. R. Kearney
    • , T. Wernberg
    • , L. B. Hutley
    • , L. E. Chambers
    • , M.-S. Fletcher
    • , M. R. Keatley
    • , C. A. Woodward
    • , G. Williamson
    • , N. C. Duke
    •  & D. M. J. S. Bowman
  • Perspective |

    Action needs to be taken to limit the impacts of climate change, however, human rights and the right to development need to be preserved. This Perspective weighs the risks of action and inaction on achieving a just transition to a low-carbon world.

    • Mary Robinson
    •  & Tara Shine
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective provides a comparative analysis of how well six cities and regions with different coastal and social characteristics and adaptation constraints will be able to adapt to sea-level rise, considering technological, economic, financial, and social factors.

    • Jochen Hinkel
    • , Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts
    • , Sally Brown
    • , Jose A. Jiménez
    • , Daniel Lincke
    • , Robert J. Nicholls
    • , Paolo Scussolini
    • , Agustín Sanchez-Arcilla
    • , Athanasios Vafeidis
    •  & Kwasi Appeaning Addo
  • Perspective |

    Climate memory is anticipated to increase in the future, a process known as reddening. This Perspective examines how a change in the temporal autocorrelation of climate variables may impact the likelihood of critical transitions, using examples from forests, coral reefs, poverty traps and ice sheets.

    • Bregje van der Bolt
    • , Egbert H. van Nes
    • , Sebastian Bathiany
    • , Marlies E. Vollebregt
    •  & Marten Scheffer
  • Perspective |

    Climate change poses a financial risk but it is unclear what management role there is for central banks and financial regulators. This Perspective outlines research and policy directions needed for financial sector engagement.

    • Emanuele Campiglio
    • , Yannis Dafermos
    • , Pierre Monnin
    • , Josh Ryan-Collins
    • , Guido Schotten
    •  & Misa Tanaka
  • Perspective |

    Compound events, events of significant impact that are caused by a combination of processes, are difficult to predict. This Perspective discusses the need for a systematic approach to improve risk assessment of these events.

    • Jakob Zscheischler
    • , Seth Westra
    • , Bart J. J. M. van den Hurk
    • , Sonia I. Seneviratne
    • , Philip J. Ward
    • , Andy Pitman
    • , Amir AghaKouchak
    • , David N. Bresch
    • , Michael Leonard
    • , Thomas Wahl
    •  & Xuebin Zhang
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective reviews the literature on climate change and mental health, and advocates for a systems approach, which considers the complex set of interacting distal, intermediate and proximate factors that influence mental health risk, in future research.

    • Helen L. Berry
    • , Thomas D. Waite
    • , Keith B. G. Dear
    • , Anthony G. Capon
    •  & Virginia Murray
  • Perspective |

    Climate change has a gradual influence on landscapes and ecosystems that may lead to feelings of loss for those with close ties to the natural environment. This Perspective describes existing research on ecological grief and outlines directions for future inquiry.

    • Ashlee Cunsolo
    •  & Neville R. Ellis
  • Perspective |

    Flood impact and recovery is influenced by behavioural responses. This Perspective describes how integrating human behaviour and risk perception into flood-risk assessment models may improve identification of effective risk-management strategies.

    • J. C. J. H. Aerts
    • , W. J. Botzen
    • , K. C. Clarke
    • , S. L. Cutter
    • , J. W. Hall
    • , B. Merz
    • , E. Michel-Kerjan
    • , J. Mysiak
    • , S. Surminski
    •  & H. Kunreuther
  • Perspective |

    The response of storms, blocks and jet streams to external forcing, basin-to-basin and tropical–extratropical interactions, and non-linear predictive theory, are highlighted as strategic areas to advance understanding of regional climate dynamics

    • Matthew Collins
    • , Shoshiro Minobe
    • , Marcelo Barreiro
    • , Simona Bordoni
    • , Yohai Kaspi
    • , Akira Kuwano-Yoshida
    • , Noel Keenlyside
    • , Elisa Manzini
    • , Christopher H. O’Reilly
    • , Rowan Sutton
    • , Shang-Ping Xie
    •  & Olga Zolina
  • Perspective |

    Efforts to improve people’s capacity to adapt to climate change have so far focussed on a relatively narrow understanding of adaptive capacity. In this Perspective, the authors propose an approach to build adaptive capacity across a broader set of domains.

    • Joshua E. Cinner
    • , W. Neil Adger
    • , Edward H. Allison
    • , Michele L. Barnes
    • , Katrina Brown
    • , Philippa J. Cohen
    • , Stefan Gelcich
    • , Christina C. Hicks
    • , Terry P. Hughes
    • , Jacqueline Lau
    • , Nadine A. Marshall
    •  & Tiffany H. Morrison
  • Perspective |

    In this Perspective, private company supply-chain initiatives designed to reduce deforestation are assessed. Public–private policy mixes are advocated to increase their efficacy.

    • Eric F. Lambin
    • , Holly K. Gibbs
    • , Robert Heilmayr
    • , Kimberly M. Carlson
    • , Leonardo C. Fleck
    • , Rachael D. Garrett
    • , Yann le Polain de Waroux
    • , Constance L. McDermott
    • , David McLaughlin
    • , Peter Newton
    • , Christoph Nolte
    • , Pablo Pacheco
    • , Lisa L. Rausch
    • , Charlotte Streck
    • , Tannis Thorlakson
    •  & Nathalie F. Walker
  • Perspective |

    Some of the predicted impacts of climate change on crops may be avoided by exploiting existing crop diversity. This Perspective examines this possibility for wine grapes where about 1% of diversity accounts for more than 80% of cultivated areas in some countries.

    • E. M. Wolkovich
    • , I. García de Cortázar-Atauri
    • , I. Morales-Castilla
    • , K. A. Nicholas
    •  & T. Lacombe
  • Perspective |

    Effective integration of climate knowledge into policy requires trust between climate science producers and users. This Perspective identifies risks associated with the dynamics of trust at the climate science–policy interface and how they may be overcome.

    • Justine Lacey
    • , Mark Howden
    • , Christopher Cvitanovic
    •  & R. M. Colvin
  • Perspective |

    Climate impact models have a limited ability to represent risks to the poor and vulnerable. Wider adoption of best practices and new model features that incorporate social heterogeneity and different policy mechanisms are needed to address this shortcoming.

    • Narasimha D. Rao
    • , Bas J. van Ruijven
    • , Keywan Riahi
    •  & Valentina Bosetti
  • Perspective |

    Many of the measures required to reduce emissions of short-lived climate pollutants contribute to achieving the sustainable development goals while complementing decarbonization efforts required to reduce long-term climate change.

    • Andy Haines
    • , Markus Amann
    • , Nathan Borgford-Parnell
    • , Sunday Leonard
    • , Johan Kuylenstierna
    •  & Drew Shindell