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  • Major hurdles remain in understanding the mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) protein efflux. A new study uses deep mutational scanning of a bacterial MDR protein to determine the nature of its drug-binding cavity and understand its function and plasticity.

    • Parjit Kaur
    News & Views
  • High-mannose N-glycans are common post-translational modifications that occur on many proteins. The mechanism by which these high-mannose N-glycans are consumed by species of Bifidobacterium has now been characterized, which is important given their positive role in human gut microbiota and their abundance in breastfed infants.

    • Lucy I. Crouch
    News & Views
  • Phase separation is an important mechanism for biomolecule condensate assembly and is involved in multiple biological activities. Understanding its molecular mechanism provides a unique perspective for gaining insights into its role in cellular physiology and for developing new tools for the manipulation of cellular function.

    Editorial
  • This perspective proposes general strategies for phase-separation-related biological studies, including proper experimental designs to validate and characterize phase-separation phenomena, connections to biological functions and some caveats to avoid common misunderstandings.

    • Yifei Gao
    • Xi Li
    • Yi Lin
    Perspective
  • Protein condensates are subcellular structures that enrich and confine molecules in cells. This Review details how condensates can be engineered with responsiveness and on-demand functions, thus pushing cellular and metabolic engineering to a new level.

    • Zhi-Gang Qian
    • Sheng-Chen Huang
    • Xiao-Xia Xia
    Review Article
  • This Review introduces molecular features of the phase-separating biomolecules and how they affect phase-separation behavior in a complex intracellular environment, highlighting a complex interplay between structure, sequence and environment in the phase-separation process.

    • José A. Villegas
    • Meta Heidenreich
    • Emmanuel D. Levy
    Review Article
  • Clustering and multimerization of cell surface proteins (CSPs) are essential for triggering downstream intracellular signaling events. Membrane-anchored liquid–liquid phase-separation systems have now been developed to manipulate the spatiotemporal distribution and activation of CSPs.

    • Zheng Wang
    • Hong Zhang
    News & Views
  • SEUSS is a transcriptional adaptor that undergoes condensation after hyperosmotic stress-induced increase of molecular crowding. The SEUSS condensates are indispensable for stress tolerance via facilitating the expression of stress-related genes.

    • Boyu Wang
    • Honghong Zhang
    • Xiaofeng Fang
    Article