Browse Articles

  • Perspective |

    Sodium-ion batteries are an appealing alternative to lithium-ion batteries because they use raw materials that are less expensive, more abundant and less toxic. The background leading to such promises is carefully assessed in terms of cell and battery production, as well as raw material supply risks, for sodium-ion and modern lithium-ion batteries.

    • Christoph Vaalma
    • , Daniel Buchholz
    • , Marcel Weil
    •  & Stefano Passerini
  • Review Article |

    Carbon nanomaterials have greatly advanced non-volatile memory technology. In this Review, applications of various carbon nanomaterials as memory electrodes, interfacial engineering layers, memory selectors and resistive-switching media are discussed in the context of emerging non-volatile memory devices.

    • Ethan C. Ahn
    • , H.-S. Philip Wong
    •  & Eric Pop
  • Review Article |

    Experimental and computational studies reveal numerous aspects of the molecular and hierarchical structure of spider silk and of its molecular dynamics. In this Review, we discuss the structure–function relationships of spider silk that can be elucidated from these studies and how this knowledge may enable the reverse engineering of spider silk.

    • Jeffery L. Yarger
    • , Brian R. Cherry
    •  & Arjan van der Vaart
  • Comment |

    The growing demands of quantum materials, engineering and technology make access to microkelvin temperatures ever more essential. Experience in Europe suggests that new working methods, encouraged by an imaginative funding atmosphere, can accelerate progress in this frontier field.

    • George Pickett
    •  & Christian Enss
  • Review Article |

    Non-fullerene acceptors have been widely used in organic solar cells over the past 3 years. This Review focuses on the two most promising classes of non-fullerene acceptors — rylene diimide-based materials and fused-ring electron acceptors — and discusses structure–property relationships, donor– acceptor matching criteria and device physics, as well as future research directions for the field.

    • Cenqi Yan
    • , Stephen Barlow
    • , Zhaohui Wang
    • , He Yan
    • , Alex K.-Y. Jen
    • , Seth R. Marder
    •  & Xiaowei Zhan
  • Review Article |

    Material engineering offers the possibility to guide the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This Review highlights integrin–growth factor receptor crosstalk mechanisms in MSC growth and differentiation, and material design strategies to trigger the synergistic signalling of integrins and growth factor receptors.

    • Matthew J. Dalby
    • , Andrés J. García
    •  & Manuel Salmeron-Sanchez
  • Review Article |

    Epitaxial hybrid nanostructures can show different functionalities and superior performance in applications from those of the individual components. This Review discusses the methods of preparation and techniques for characterization of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures with various architectures, and examines the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

    • Chaoliang Tan
    • , Junze Chen
    • , Xue-Jun Wu
    •  & Hua Zhang
  • Review Article |

    Light can initiate chemistries with high spatial and temporal control. In this Review, photoresponsive biomaterials developed for controlled drug delivery and complex tissue engineering are investigated with a focus on photochemistries that provide dynamic precision.

    • Emily R. Ruskowitz
    •  & Cole A. DeForest
  • Review Article |

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) function as a result of ion injection from electrolytes into organic semiconductors. In this Review, the authors discuss OECT physics, organic materials and fabrication technologies, and the application of OECTs in circuits, bioelectronics and memory devices.

    • Jonathan Rivnay
    • , Sahika Inal
    • , Alberto Salleo
    • , Róisín M. Owens
    • , Magnus Berggren
    •  & George G. Malliaras
  • Review Article |

    The spin of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond acts as a sensitive, atomic-sized magnetic field sensor that provides nanoscale access to the properties of condensed matter systems. This Review introduces NV magnetometry and discusses its application to the exploration of static and dynamic magnetism and electric current distributions.

    • Francesco Casola
    • , Toeno van der Sar
    •  & Amir Yacoby
  • Review Article |

    Mechanical forces and electrical fields are crucial for cellular signalling and can be both inducers and indicators of disease. This Review highlights advances in nanoscale, in vivo, optical probes, discussing spatial and temporal resolution, stability and stimuli sensitivity in bioimaging.

    • Randy D. Mehlenbacher
    • , Rea Kolbl
    • , Alice Lay
    •  & Jennifer A. Dionne