Review Articles

  • Review Article |

    The authors of this Review discuss cooperative systems across all biological levels, including genomes, multicellular organisms and societies, and develop mathematical models to argue that enforcement is central to the evolution of cooperation.

    • J. Arvid Ågren
    • , Nicholas G. Davies
    •  & Kevin R. Foster
  • Review Article |

    The World Database on Protected Areas has evolved since 1959 to become an essential resource for monitoring global progress in terrestrial and marine habitat protection. This Review illustrates the users and uses of the WDPA, its history of quality improvements and challenges for future development.

    • Heather C. Bingham
    • , Diego Juffe Bignoli
    • , Edward Lewis
    • , Brian MacSharry
    • , Neil D. Burgess
    • , Piero Visconti
    • , Marine Deguignet
    • , Murielle Misrachi
    • , Matt Walpole
    • , Jessica L. Stewart
    • , Thomas M. Brooks
    •  & Naomi Kingston
  • Review Article |

    The evolution of the human facial skeleton is evaluated in the context of its extinct hominin relatives, and the biomechanical, physiological and social influences on its development are considered.

    • Rodrigo S. Lacruz
    • , Chris B. Stringer
    • , William H. Kimbel
    • , Bernard Wood
    • , Katerina Harvati
    • , Paul O’Higgins
    • , Timothy G. Bromage
    •  & Juan-Luis Arsuaga
  • Review Article |

    A review of current knowledge of the mosquito and vertebrate host species for Zika virus, mechanisms of vector-borne transmission, and the possible scenarios of recent Zika virus emergence and evolution, including potential spillback from urban to zoonotic cycles.

    • Gladys Gutiérrez-Bugallo
    • , Luis Augusto Piedra
    • , Magdalena Rodriguez
    • , Juan A. Bisset
    • , Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira
    • , Scott C. Weaver
    • , Nikos Vasilakis
    •  & Anubis Vega-Rúa
  • Review Article |

    Migratory species are often exploited by resident predators. Here, the authors review the extent to which prey induce large-scale movements of predators, and outline a framework for the ecological consequences of coupled migrations.

    • Nathan B. Furey
    • , Jonathan B. Armstrong
    • , David A. Beauchamp
    •  & Scott G. Hinch
  • Review Article |

    The bilaterian mouth and anus evolved from a simple gut with one gastric opening. Here, the authors review comparative data on several organisms and conclude that the single opening probably evolved into both mouth and anus (amphistomy).

    • Claus Nielsen
    • , Thibaut Brunet
    •  & Detlev Arendt
  • Review Article |

    The poor reputation of predator and scavenger species belies their benefits to people, which include disease regulation, contributions to agriculture and waste disposal. These services should be emphasized in conservation considerations.

    • Christopher J. O’Bryan
    • , Alexander R. Braczkowski
    • , Hawthorne L. Beyer
    • , Neil H. Carter
    • , James E. M. Watson
    •  & Eve McDonald-Madden
  • Review Article |

    Invasive species can affect pollination in various ways, including altered ecological networks, new disease threats and reduced nutrition. This Review assesses these threats and builds on the IPBES report on pollinators.

    • Adam J. Vanbergen
    • , Anahí Espíndola
    •  & Marcelo A. Aizen
  • Review Article |

    Incorporating marine biomes into the planetary boundaries framework promotes integrated understanding of biophysical limits and earth system governance.

    • Kirsty L. Nash
    • , Christopher Cvitanovic
    • , Elizabeth A. Fulton
    • , Benjamin S. Halpern
    • , E. J. Milner-Gulland
    • , Reg A. Watson
    •  & Julia L. Blanchard
  • Review Article |

    Bayesian phylogenetic methods are very popular among evolutionary biologists and ecologists. This Review summarizes the major features of Bayesian inference and discusses several practical aspects of Bayesian computation.

    • Fabrícia F. Nascimento
    • , Mario dos Reis
    •  & Ziheng Yang
  • Review Article |

    Assessing development challenges for fisheries-dependent countries based on analyses of interactions and trade-offs between goals focusing on food, biodiversity and climate change.

    • Julia L. Blanchard
    • , Reg A. Watson
    • , Elizabeth A. Fulton
    • , Richard S. Cottrell
    • , Kirsty L. Nash
    • , Andrea Bryndum-Buchholz
    • , Matthias Büchner
    • , David A. Carozza
    • , William W. L. Cheung
    • , Joshua Elliott
    • , Lindsay N. K. Davidson
    • , Nicholas K. Dulvy
    • , John P. Dunne
    • , Tyler D. Eddy
    • , Eric Galbraith
    • , Heike K. Lotze
    • , Olivier Maury
    • , Christoph Müller
    • , Derek P. Tittensor
    •  & Simon Jennings
  • Review Article |

    Multiple interacting factors have contributed to the rapid decline of honeybee populations worldwide. Here, the authors review the impact of parasites and pathogens, and how ecological and evolutionary principles can guide management practices.

    • Berry J. Brosi
    • , Keith S. Delaplane
    • , Michael Boots
    •  & Jacobus C. de Roode
  • Review Article |

    Bisulfite sequencing is widely used to study genome-scale DNA methylation. In this Review, the authors discuss methodological and statistical considerations related to bisulfite sequencing that are particularly relevant when studying non-model organisms.

    • Amanda J. Lea
    • , Tauras P. Vilgalys
    • , Paul A. P. Durst
    •  & Jenny Tung
  • Review Article |

    The evolution of complex adaptations poses conceptual challenges. Here, the authors discuss adaptive and non-adaptive scenarios in the evolution of complex adaptations and propose molecular mechanisms that provide access to new adaptive paths.

    • Csaba Pál
    •  & Balázs Papp
  • Review Article |

    The Nutrient Network is a globally distributed, coordinated grassland ecology experiment. Here, the first decade of this network is reviewed, including insights into ecosystem productivity, stability and the effects of herbivores and invasive species.

    • Elizabeth T. Borer
    • , James B. Grace
    • , W. Stanley Harpole
    • , Andrew S. MacDougall
    •  & Eric W. Seabloom
  • Review Article |

    The widespread occurrence of microscopic plastic particles in the ocean is of both and ecological and societal concern. Here, the authors review the biological impacts of interactions with microplastics in the marine environment.

    • Tamara S. Galloway
    • , Matthew Cole
    •  & Ceri Lewis
  • Review Article |

    A full understanding of speciation requires the integration of knowledge at the macro and micro evolutionary scales. Here, the authors discuss the developmental processes associated with variation within plant species and morphological innovations that promote speciation in plants.

    • Mario Fernández-Mazuecos
    •  & Beverley J. Glover
  • Review Article |

    Humans have been modifying environments and habitats both indirectly and directly for millennia. This has resulted in extensive changes to the biology of non-domesticated non-human species, and this pattern is likely to increase in the future

    • Alexis P. Sullivan
    • , Douglas W. Bird
    •  & George H. Perry
  • Review Article |

    miRNAs are crucial regulators of normal development in plants and animals, but their origins remain obscure. Exploration of the similarities and differences between different miRNA pathways help to elucidate their origins and role.

    • Yehu Moran
    • , Maayan Agron
    • , Daniela Praher
    •  & Ulrich Technau
  • Review Article |

    The relationship between transcriptional and phenotypic dimorphism is poorly understood, and is based on variably supported assumptions about transcriptional architecture, phenotypic variation and the target of selection.

    • Judith E. Mank