Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory

Journal name:
Nature Photonics
Year published:
Published online

Quantum teleportation1 is a cornerstone of quantum information science due to its essential role in important tasks such as the long-distance transmission of quantum information using quantum repeaters2, 3. This requires the efficient distribution of entanglement between remote nodes of a network4. Here, we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the polarization state of a telecom-wavelength photon onto the state of a solid-state quantum memory. Entanglement is established between a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal storing a single photon that is polarization-entangled with a flying telecom-wavelength photon5, 6. The latter is jointly measured with another flying polarization qubit to be teleported, which heralds the teleportation. The fidelity of the qubit retrieved from the memory is shown to be greater than the maximum fidelity achievable without entanglement, even when the combined distances travelled by the two flying qubits is 25 km of standard optical fibre. Our results demonstrate the possibility of long-distance quantum networks with solid-state resources.

At a glance


  1. Experimental set-up.
    Figure 1: Experimental set-up.

    The system includes a source of polarization-entangled photons at 883 nm (the signal) and 1,338 nm (the idler) using filtered spontaneous parametric down-conversion from two nonlinear waveguides (PPLN and PPKTP) coherently pumped with 532 nm light. After the waveguides, the signal and idler modes are separated using dichroic mirrors (DM) and are then individually manipulated to obtain good overlap after recombination at two polarization beam splitters (PBSs), as well as high transmission through the filtering cavity and etalon. A single pair of energy-correlated spectral modes of the signal and idler photons are selected using volume Bragg gratings (VBG). The signal photon is sent to a neodymium-based polarization-preserving quantum memory that was previously prepared as an atomic frequency comb using 883 nm light (see Methods). A switch (Sw) selects either the preparation light or the signal photons. The weak coherent state (WCS) at 1,338 nm is created by means of difference-frequency generation from 532 and 883 nm light. The WCS is then selected using a grating (Gr) and coupled in an optical fibre. The input state to be teleported is prepared using wave plates and sent towards a 50/50 beamsplitter where it is mixed with the idler photon to perform the Bell-state measurement (BSM). The output modes of the beamsplitter are polarization-filtered and sent towards two high-efficiency detectors based on WSi superconducting nanowires (D1 and D2) operated at 2.5 K in a closed-cycle cryocooler 10 m away from the quantum memory. A coincidence detection at D1 and D2 heralds a successful BSM. The signal photon retrieved from the quantum memory is sent to a polarization-state analyser where it is detected on D3 or D4. The idler and WCS photons are each transmitted either over a short distance or over 12.4 km of single-mode optical fibre. See Supplementary Information for details.

  2. Experimental results.
    Figure 2: Experimental results.

    ad, Results of the teleportation of input state |− . a, Two-dimensional histogram showing the number of threefold coincidences between detectors D1, D2 and D3 as a function of delays δt31 and δt32 between detections at D3 and D1 and D2. b, As in a, with D4 instead of D3. Each histogram indicates onto which polarization state the retrieved photon was projected (|− −| for a and |+ +| for b). Each pixel corresponds to a square time window with sides of 486 ps. This is smaller than the coherence time of the photons, which is necessary to temporally resolve the detection events corresponding to a successful Bell-state measurement. c,d, Horizontal slices of a and b (centred on δt31 = 0 and δt41 = 0, respectively), showing the peak and dip, respectively, in number of detections at the centre. Black diamonds are the points used to estimate the fidelity of the teleportation. e, Detected fraction of counts on D3 and D4 of the analyser with input state |+ , when the retrieved state is measured in a basis that is rotated around the equator of the Bloch sphere. Solid lines show the values expected from quantum state tomography. f,g, Results of the teleportation of |+ when the combined distance travelled by the idler and weak coherent state photons is 25 km of standard optical fibre. Uncertainties are obtained assuming a Poisson detection statistics.


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Author information

  1. Present address: Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, TU Wien—Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna, Austria

    • Christoph Clausen
  2. These authors contributed equally to this work

    • Félix Bussières &
    • Christoph Clausen


  1. Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland

    • Félix Bussières,
    • Christoph Clausen,
    • Alexey Tiranov,
    • Boris Korzh,
    • Mikael Afzelius &
    • Nicolas Gisin
  2. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA

    • Varun B. Verma &
    • Sae Woo Nam
  3. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109, USA

    • Francesco Marsili
  4. PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 75005 Paris, France

    • Alban Ferrier &
    • Philippe Goldner
  5. Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris 75005, France

    • Alban Ferrier
  6. Applied Physics/Integrated Optics Group, University of Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn, Germany

    • Harald Herrmann,
    • Christine Silberhorn &
    • Wolfgang Sohler


The experiment was conceived by F.B., C.C., M.A. and N.G. The superconducting detectors were fabricated by V.B.V., S.W.N. and F.M. and characterized by V.B.V., B.K. and F.B. The rare-earth-ion doped crystals were grown by A.F. and P.G. and characterized by A.T. and F.B. The lithium niobate waveguide was fabricated by H.H., C.S. and W.S. and characterized by C.C. The measurements and data analysis were done by C.C., A.T. and F.B. The manuscript was written by F.B., A.T. and C.C., with contributions from all authors.

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