Schulz KM, Sisk CL. The organizing actions of adolescent gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016;70:148–58.
Sisk CL, Zehr JL. Pubertal hormones organize the adolescent brain and behavior. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2005;26:163–74.
Goddings AL, Mills KL, Clasen LS, Giedd JN, Viner RM, Blakemore SJ. The influence of puberty on subcortical brain development. Neuroimage. 2014;88:242–51. Using a longitudinal sample of 711 neuroimaging scans from 275 youth aged 7-20 years, the authors revealed sex differences in the growth trajectories of subcortical structures.
Herting MM, Gautam P, Spielberg JM, Kan E, Dahl RE, Sowell ER. The role of testosterone and estradiol in brain volume changes across adolescence: A longitudinal structural MRI study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014;35:5633–45.
Polanczyk G, Silva de Lima M, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: A systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:942–8.
Remes O, Brayne C, van der Linde R, Lafortune L. A systematic review of reviews on the prevalence of anxiety disorders in adult populations. Brain Behav. 2016;6:1–33.
Smink FRE, van Hoeken D, Oldehinkel AJ, Hoek HW. Prevalence and severity of DSM-5 eating disorders in a community cohort of adolescents. Int J Eat Disord. 2014;47:610–9.
Beesdo K, Knappe S, Pine DS. Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2009;32:483–524.
Albert PR. Why is depression more prevalent in women? J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2015;40:219–21.
Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Epstein JN, Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Kahn RS. Prevalence, recognition, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a national sample of US children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:857–64.
Avenevoli S, Swendsen J, He JP, Burstein M, Merikangas KR. Major depression in the national comorbidity survey–adolescent supplement: Prevalence, correlates, and treatment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015;54:37–44.
Willcutt EG. The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Neurotherapeutics. 2012;9:490–9.
Cosgrove K, Mazure C, Staley J. Evolving knowledge of sex differences in brain structure, function, and chemistry. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:847–55.
Ruigrok ANV, Salimi-Khorshidi G, Lai M-C, Baron-Cohen S, Lombardo MV, Tait RJ, et al. A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014;39:34–50.
Sowell ER, Peterson BS, Kan E, Woods RP, Yoshii J, Bansal R, et al. Sex differences in cortical thickness mapped in 176 healthy individuals between 7 and 87 years of age. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:1550–60.
Kersbergen KJ, Makropoulos A, Aljabar P, Groenendaal F, de Vries LS, Counsell SJ, et al. Longitudinal regional brain development and clinical risk factors in extremely preterm infants. J Pediatr. 2016;178:93–100.
Stiles J, Jernigan TL. The basics of brain development. Neuropsychol Rev. 2010;20:327–48.
Knickmeyer RC, Gouttard S, Kang C, Evans D, Smith JK, Hamer RM, et al. A structural MRI study of human brain development from birth to 2 years. J Neurosci. 2010;28:12176–82.
De Bellis MD, Keshavan MS, Beers SR, Hall J, Frustaci K, Masalehdan A, et al. Sex differences in brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Cereb Cortex. 2001;11:552–7.
Brain Development Cooperative Group. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: The NIH MRI study of normal brain development. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:1–12. Reports on brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5 to 18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development.
Gennatas ED, Avants BB, Wolf DH, Satterthwaite TD, Ruparel K, Ciric R, et al. Age-related effects and sex differences in gray matter density, volume, mass, and cortical thickness from childhood to young adulthood. J Neurosci. 2017;37:5065–73. Demonstrated that both total gray matter volume and estimated gray matter mass are greater in males, while females show greater gray matter density using a cross-sectional sample of 1,189 youth ages 8 to 23 years.
Bramen JE, Hranilovich JA, Dahl RE, Forbes EE, Chen J, Toga AW, et al. Puberty influences medial temporal lobe and cortical gray matter maturation differently in boys than girls matched for sexual maturity. Cereb Cortex. 2011;21:636–46.
Luders E, Narr KL, Thompson PM, Woods RP, Rex DE, Jancke L, et al. Mapping cortical gray matter in the young adult brain: Effects of gender. Neuroimage. 2005;26:493–501.
Ritchie SJ, Cox SR, Shen X, Lombardo MV, Reus LM, Alloza C, et al. Sex differences in the adult human brain: Evidence from 5,216 UK Biobank participants. Cereb Cortex. 2018. Reported on the largest structural MRI sample to date from the UK Biobank with over 5,000 adults, which revealed sex differences in brain structure and variability.
Giedd JN, Blumenthal J, Jeffries NO, Castellanos FX, Liu H, Zijdenbos A, et al. Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:861–3.
Lenroot RK, Gogtay N, Greenstein DK, Wells EM, Wallace GL, Clasen LS, et al. Sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories during childhood and adolescence. Neuroimage. 2007;36:1065–73.
Raznahan A, Shaw P, Lalonde F, Stockman M, Wallace GL, Greenstein D, et al. How does your cortex grow? J Neurosci. 2011;31:7174–7. Leveraged over 1,250 longitudinally acquired brain scans from 647 healthy individuals aged 3 to 30 years to show that differences in cortical volumes depend on the complex interaction between cortical thickness, convex hull area, and gyrification.
Lebel C, Beaulieu C. Longitudinal development of human brain wiring continues from childhood into adulthood. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10937–47.
Whitaker KJ, Vértes PE, Romero-Garcia R, Váša F, Moutoussis M, Prabhu G, et al. Adolescence is associated with genomically patterned consolidation of the hubs of the human brain connectome. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2016;113:9105–10.
Gogtay N, Giedd JN, Lusk L, Hayashi KM, Greenstein D, Vaituzis AC, et al. Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2004;101:8174–9.
Thompson PM, Gledd JN, Woods RP, MacDonald D, Evans AC, Toga AW. Growth patterns in the developing brain detected by using continuum mechanical tensor maps. Nature. 2000;404:190–3.
Allen JS, Damasio H, Grabowski TJ, Bruss J, Zhang W. Sexual dimorphism and asymmetries in the gray-white composition of the human cerebrum. Neuroimage. 2003;18:880–94.
Goldstein JM, Seidman LJ, Horton NJ, Makris N, Kennedy DN, Caviness VS, et al. Normal sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain assessed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Cereb Cortex. 2001;11:490–7.
Gur RC, Turetsky BI, Matsui M, Yan M, Bilker W, Hughett P, et al. Sex differences in brain gray and white matter in healthy young adults: Correlations with cognitive performance. J Neurosci. 1999;19:4065–72.
Dennison M, Whittle S, Yücel M, Vijayakumar N, Kline A, Simmons J, et al. Mapping subcortical brain maturation during adolescence: Evidence of hemisphere- and sex-specific longitudinal changes. Dev Sci. 2013;16:772–91.
Neufang S, Specht K, Hausmann M, Güntürkün O, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Fink GR, et al. Sex differences and the impact of steroid hormones on the developing human brain. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:464–73.
Filipek PA, Richelme C, Kennedy DN, Caviness VS. The young adult human brain: An MRI-based morphometric analysis. Cereb Cortex. 1994;4:344–60.
Giedd JN, Vaituzis AC, Hamburger SD, Lange N, Rajapakse JC, Kaysen D, et al. Quantitative MRI of the temporal lobe, amygdala, and hippocampus in normal human development: Ages 4-18 years. J Comp Neurol. 1996;366:223–30.
Li J, Chen C, Lei X, Wang Y, Chen C, He Q, et al. The NTSR1 gene modulates the association between hippocampal structure and working memory performance. Neuroimage. 2013;75:79–86.
Suzuki M, Hagino H, Nohara S, Zhou SY, Kawasaki Y, Takahashi T, et al. Male-specific volume expansion of the human hippocampus during adolescence. Cereb Cortex. 2005;15:187–93.
Cherbuin N, Windsor TD, Anstey KJ, Maller JJ, Meslin C, Sachdev PS. Hippocampal volume is positively associated with behavioural inhibition (BIS) in a large community-based sample of mid-life adults: The PATH through life study. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2008;3:262–9.
Fjell AM, Westlye LT, Amlien I, Espeseth T, Reinvang I, Raz N, et al. Minute effects of sex on the aging brain: A multisample magnetic resonance imaging study of healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci. 2009;29:8774–83.
Jäncke L, Mérillat S, Liem F, Hänggi J. Brain size, sex, and the aging brain. Hum Brain Mapp. 2015;36:150–69.
Marwha D, Halari M, Eliot L. Meta-analysis reveals a lack of sexual dimorphism in human amygdala volume. Neuroimage. 2017;147:282–94.
Tan A, Ma W, Vira A, Marwha D, Eliot L. The human hippocampus is not sexually-dimorphic: Meta-analysis of structural MRI volumes. Neuroimage. 2016;124:350–66.
Satterthwaite TD, Vandekar S, Wolf DH, Ruparel K, Roalf DR, Jackson C, et al. Sex differences in the effect of puberty on hippocampal morphology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014b;53:341–50.
Koolschijn PCMP, Crone EA. Sex differences and structural brain maturation from childhood to early adulthood. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2013;5:106–18.
Wierenga LM, Sexton JA, Laake P, Giedd JN, Tamnes CK. A Key Characteristic of sex differences in the developing brain: Greater variability in brain structure of boys than girls. Cereb Cortex. 2017. Leveraged a cross-sectional sample of over 1,000 youth, 3 to 21 years of age, to reveal that males show significantly greater variance than females in a number of structures, beyond differences in mean volumes.
Good CD, Johnsrude I, Ashburner J, Henson RNA, Friston KJ, Frackowiak RSJ. Cerebral asymmetry and the effects of sex and handedness on brain structure: A voxel-based morphometric analysis of 465 normal adult human brains. Neuroimage. 2001;14:685–700.
Fischl B, Dale AM. Measuring the thickness of the human cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance images. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2000;97:11050–5.
White T, Su S, Schmidt M, Kao CY, Sapiro G. The development of gyrification in childhood and adolescence. Brain Cogn. 2010;72:36–45.
Amlien IK, Fjell AM, Tamnes CK, Grydeland H, Krogsrud SK, Chaplin TA, et al. Organizing principles of human cortical development-thickness and area from 4 to 30 years: Insights from comparative primate neuroanatomy. Cereb Cortex. 2016;26:257–67.
Shaw P, Kabani NJ, Lerch JP, Eckstrand K, Lenroot R, Gogtay N, et al. Neurodevelopmental trajectories of the human cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3586–94.
Mutlu AK, Schneider M, Debbané M, Badoud D, Eliez S, Schaer M. Sex differences in thickness, and folding developments throughout the cortex. Neuroimage. 2013;82:200–7.
van Soelen ILC, Brouwer RM, van Baal GCM, Schnack HG, Peper JS, Collins DL, et al. Genetic influences on thinning of the cerebral cortex during development. Neuroimage. 2012;59:3871–80.
Tamnes CK, Østby Y, Fjell AM, Westlye LT, Due-Tønnessen P, Walhovd KB. Brain maturation in adolescence and young adulthood: Regional age-related changes in cortical thickness and white matter volume and microstructure. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:534–48.
Ducharme S, Albaugh MD, Nguyen TV, Hudziak JJ, Mateos-Pérez JM, Labbe A, et al. Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development-the importance of quality control procedures. Neuroimage. 2016;125:267–79.
Sowell ER. Longitudinal mapping of cortical thickness and brain growth in normal children. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8223–31.
Vandekar SN, Shinohara RT, Raznahan A, Roalf DR, Ross M, DeLeo N, et al. Topologically dissociable patterns of development of the human cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2015;35:599–609.
Sotiras A, Toledo JB, Gur RE, Gur RC, Satterthwaite TD, Davatzikos C. Patterns of coordinated cortical remodeling during adolescence and their associations with functional specialization and evolutionary expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2017;114:3527–32.
Muftuler LT, Davis EP, Buss C, Head K, Hasso AN, Sandman CA. Cortical and subcortical changes in typically developing preadolescent children. Brain Res. 2011;1399:15–24.
Maingault S, Tzourio-Mazoyer N, Mazoyer B, Crivello F. Regional correlations between cortical thickness and surface area asymmetries: A surface-based morphometry study of 250 adults. Neuropsychologia. 2016;93:350–64.
Winkler AM, Kochunov P, Blangero J, Almasy L, Zilles K, Fox PT, et al. Cortical thickness or grey matter volume? The importance of selecting the phenotype for imaging genetics studies. Neuroimage. 2010;53:1135–46.
Chen C-H, Fiecas M, Gutierrez ED, Panizzon MS, Eyler LT, Vuoksimaa E, et al. Genetic topography of brain morphology. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2013;110:17089–94.
Su S, White T, Schmidt M, Kao CY, Sapiro G. Geometric computation of human gyrification indexes from magnetic resonance images. Hum Brain Mapp. 2013;34:1230–44.
Gautam P, Anstey KJ, Wen W, Sachdev PS, Cherbuin N. Cortical gyrification and its relationships with cortical volume, cortical thickness, and cognitive performance in healthy mid-life adults. Behav Brain Res. 2015;287:331–9.
Fish AM, Cachia A, Fischer C, Mankiw C, Reardon PK, Clasen LS, et al. Influences of brain size, sex, and sex chromosome complement on the architecture of human cortical folding. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:5557–67.
Li G, Wang L, Shi F, Lyall AE, Lin W, Gilmore JH, et al. Mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants from birth to 2 years of age. J Neurosci. 2014;34:4228–38.
Alexander AL, Lee JE, Lazar M, Field AS. Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Neurotherapeutics. 2007;4:316–29.
Grydeland H, Walhovd KB, Tamnes CK, Westlye LT, Fjell AM. Intracortical myelin links with performance variability across the human lifespan: Results from T1- and T2-weighted MRI myelin mapping and diffusion tensor imaging. J Neurosci. 2013;33:18618–30.
Simmonds DJ, Hallquist MN, Asato M, Luna B. Developmental stages and sex differences of white matter and behavioral development through adolescence: A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study. Neuroimage. 2014;92:356–68.
Krogsrud SK, Fjell AM, Tamnes CK, Grydeland H, Mork L, Due-Tønnessen P, et al. Changes in white matter microstructure in the developing brain- A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study of children from 4 to 11years of age. Neuroimage. 2016;124:473–86.
Lebel C, Caverhill-Godkewitsch S, Beaulieu C. Age-related regional variations of the corpus callosum identified by diffusion tensor tractography. Neuroimage. 2010;52:20–31.
Abe O, Yamasue H, Yamada H, Masutani Y, Kabasawa H, Sasaki H, et al. Sex dimorphism in gray/white matter volume and diffusion tensor during normal aging. NMR Biomed. 2010;23:446–58.
Westerhausen R, Walter C, Kreuder F, Wittling RA, Schweiger E, Wittling W. The influence of handedness and gender on the microstructure of the human corpus callosum: A diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Neurosci Lett. 2003;351:99–102.
Hsu JL, Leemans A, Bai CH, Lee CH, Tsai YF, Chiu HC, et al. Gender differences and age-related white matter changes of the human brain: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Neuroimage. 2008;39:566–77.
Schmithorst VJ, Holland SK, Dardzinski BJ. Developmental differences in white matter architecture between boys and girls. Hum Brain Mapp. 2008;29:696–710.
Kanaan RA, Chaddock C, Allin M, Picchioni MM, Daly E, Shergill SS, et al. Gender influence on white matter microstructure: A tract-based spatial statistics analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9:1–6.
Clayden JD, Jentschke S, Munoz M, Cooper JM, Chadwick MJ, Banks T, et al. Normative development of white matter tracts: Similarities and differences in relation to age, gender, and intelligence. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:1738–47.
Herting MM, Maxwell EC, Irvine C, Nagel BJ. The impact of sex, puberty, and hormones on white matter microstructure in adolescents. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:1979–92.
Bava S, Boucquey V, Goldenberg D, Thayer RE, Ward M, Jacobus J, et al. Sex differences in adolescent white matter architecture. Brain Res. 2011;1375:41–8.
Eluvathingal TJ, Hasan KM, Kramer L, Fletcher JM, Ewing-cobbs L. Quantitative diffusion tensor tractography of association and projection fibers in normally developing children and adolescents. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:2760–8.
Petrella JR, Provenzale JM. MR perfusion imaging of the brain: Techniques and applications. Am J Roentgenol. 2000;175:207–19.
Detre JA, Wang J, Wang Z, Rao H. Arterial spin-labeled perfusion MRI in basic and clinical neuroscience. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22:348–55.
Magistretti PJ, Allaman I. A cellular perspective on brain energy metabolism and functional imaging. Neuron. 2015;86:883–901.
Epstein HT. Stages of increased cerebral blood flow accompany stages of rapid brain growth. Brain Dev. 1999;21:535–9.
Bouma GJ, Muizelaar JP. Relationship between cardiac output and cerebral blood flow in patients with intact and with impaired autoregulation. J Neurosurg. 1990;73:368–74.
Takahashi T, Shirane R, Sato S, Yoshimoto T. Developmental changes of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in children. Am J Neuroradiol. 1999;20:917–22.
Wang J, Licht DJ, Jahng G-H, Liu C-S, Rubin JT, Haselgrove J, et al. Pediatric perfusion imaging using pulsed arterial spin labeling. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2003;18:404–13.
Wu C, Honarmand AR, Schnell S, Kuhn R, Schoeneman SE, Ansari SA, et al. Age-related changes of normal cerebral and cardiac blood flow in children and adults aged 7 months to 61 years. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5:1–13.
Taki Y, Hashizume H, Sassa Y, Takeuchi H, Wu K, Asano M, et al. Correlation between gray matter density-adjusted brain perfusion and age using brain MR images of 202 healthy children. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011;32:1973–85.
Satterthwaite TD, Shinohara RT, Wolf DH, Hopson RD, Elliott MA, Vandekar SN, et al. Impact of puberty on the evolution of cerebral perfusion during adolescence. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2014a;111:8643–8. Identified marked sex differences in cerebral blood flow in 922 youth ages 8 to 22 years, where males show a relatively linear decline in cerebral blood flow, while females initially show a similar decline until mid-adolescence when cerebral perfusion begins to increase.
Liu Y, Zhu X, Feinberg D, Guenther M, Gregori J, Weiner MW, et al. Arterial spin labeling MRI study of age and gender effects on brain perfusion hemodynamics. Magn Reson Med. 2012;68:912–22.
Mathew RJ, Wilson WH, Tant SR. Determinants of resting regional cerebral blood flow in normal subjects. Bio Psychiatry. 1986;21:907–14.
Rodriguez G, Warkentin S, Risberg J, Rosadini G. Sex differences in regional cerebral blood flow. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1988;8:783–9.
Baxter LR, Mazziotta JC, Phelps ME, Selin CE, Guze BH, Fairbanks L. Cerebral glucose metabolic rates in normal human females versus normal males. Psychiatry Res. 1987;21:237–45.
Gur RC, Gur RE, Obrist WD, Hungerbuhler JP, Younkin D, Rosen AD, et al. Sex and handedness differences in cerebral blood flow during rest and cognitive activity. Science. 1982;217:659–61.
Nock MK, Kazdin AE, Hirpi E, Kessler RC. Prevalence, subtypes, and correlates of DSM-IV conduct disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychol Med. 2006;36:699.
Supekar K, Iyer T, Menon V. The influence of sex and age on prevalence rates of comorbid conditions in autism. Autism Res. 2017;10:778–89.
Yang J, Hirsch L, Martino D, Jette N, Roberts J, Pringsheim T. The prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome in Canada: A national population-based study. Mov Disord. 2016;31:1658–63.
Roza SJ, Hofstra MB, van der Ende J, Verhulst FC. Stable prediction of mood and anxiety disorders based on behavioral and emotional problems in childhood: A 14-year follow-up during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:2116–21.
Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:617–27.
Baxter AJ, Scott KM, Ferrari AJ, Norman RE, Vos T, Whiteford HA. Challenging the myth of an “epidemic” of common mental disorders: Trends in the global prevalence of anxiety and depression between 1990 and 2010. Depress Anxiety. 2014;31:506–16.
Bandelow B, Michaelis S. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialog Clin Neurosci. 2015;17:327–35.
Stein DJ, Lim CCW, Roest AM, de Jonge P, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Al-Hamzawi A, et al. The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. BMC Med. 2017;15:143.
Breslau N. The epidemiology of trauma, PTSD, and other posttrauma disorders. Trauma Violence Abus. 2009;10:198–210.
Somers JM, Goldner EM, Waraich P, Hsu L. Prevalence and incidence studies of anxiety disorders: A systematic review of the literature. Can J Psychiatry. 2006;51:100–13.
Steel Z, Marnane C, Iranpour C, Chey T, Jackson JW, Patel V, et al. The global prevalence of common mental disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis 1980-2013. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43:476–93.
Sylvester CM, Corbetta M, Raichle ME, Rodebaugh TL, Schlaggar BL, Sheline YI, et al. Functional network dysfunction in anxiety and anxiety disorders. Trends Neurosci. 2012;35:527–35.
Damsa C, Kosel M, Moussally J. Current status of brain imaging in anxiety disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2009;22:96–110.
Shin LM, Liberzon I. The neurocircuitry of fear, stress, and anxiety disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:169–91.
Etkin A, Wager TD. Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: A meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1476–88.
Fredrikson M, Faria V. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders. Anxiety Disord. 2013;29:47–66.
Karl A, Schaefer M, Malta LS, Dörfel D, Rohleder N, Werner A. A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30:1004–31.
Duval ER, Javanbakht A, Liberzon I. Neural circuits in anxiety and stress disorders: A focused review. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2015;11:115–26.
Bas-Hoogendam JM, van Steenbergen H, Pannekoek JN, Fouche J-P, Lochner C, Hattingh CJ, et al. Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder. Neuroimage Clin. 2017;16:678–88.
Andreescu C, Gross JJ, Lenze E, Edelman KD, Snyder S, Tanase C, et al. Altered cerebral blood flow patterns associated with pathologic worry in the elderly. Depress Anxiety. 2011;28:202–9.
Schuff N, Zhang Y, Zhan W, Lenoci M, Ching C, Boreta L, et al. Patterns of altered cortical perfusion and diminished subcortical integrity in posttraumatic stress disorder: An MRI study. Neuroimage. 2011;54:S62–8.
Wang J, Rao H, Wetmore GS, Furlan PM, Korczykowski M, Dinges DF, et al. Perfusion functional MRI reveals cerebral blood flow pattern under psychological stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2005;102:17804–9.
Kaczkurkin AN, Moore TM, Ruparel K, Ciric R, Calkins ME, Shinohara RT, et al. Elevated amygdala perfusion mediates developmental sex differences in trait anxiety. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;80:775–85. Showed that higher anxious-misery levels in post-pubertal females were mediated in part by higher perfusion in the left amygdala in a large sample of 875 youth.
Wang J, Korczykowski M, Rao H, Fan Y, Pluta J, Gur RC, et al. Gender difference in neural response to psychological stress. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2007;2:227–39.
Hakamata Y, Iwase M, Iwata H, Kobayashi T, Tamaki T, Nishio M, et al. Gender difference in relationship between anxiety-related personality traits and cerebral brain glucose metabolism. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2009;173:206–11.
Bromet E, Andrade LH, Hwang I, Sampson NA, Alonso J, de Girolamo G, et al. Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode. BMC Med. 2011;9:1–16.
Marcus SM, Kerber KB, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg A, Balasubramani GK, et al. Sex differences in depression symptoms in treatment-seeking adults: Confirmatory analyses from the sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression study. Compr Psychiatry. 2008;49:238–46.
Martin LA, Neighbors HW, Griffith DM. The experience of symptoms of depression in men vs women: Analysis of the national comorbidity survey replication. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70:1100–6.
Curtin SC, Warner M, Hedegaard H. Increase in suicide in the United States, 1999-2014. NCHS Data Brief. 2016;241:1–8.
Rai D, Zitko P, Jones K, Lynch J, Araya R. Country- and individual-level socioeconomic determinants of depression: Multilevel cross-national comparison. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202:195–203.
Arnone D, McIntosh AM, Ebmeier KP, Munafò MR, Anderson IM. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in unipolar depression: Systematic review and meta-regression analyses. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;22:1–16.
Sacher J, Neumann J, Fünfstück T, Soliman A, Villringer A, Schroeter ML. Mapping the depressed brain: A meta-analysis of structural and functional alterations in major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2012;140:142–8.
Schmaal L, Veltman DJ, van Erp TGM, Sämann PG, Frodl T, Jahanshad N, et al. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: Findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;21:806–12.
Wise T, Radua J, Via E, Cardoner N, Abe O, Adams TM, et al. Common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume alteration in major depression and bipolar disorder: Evidence from voxel-based meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;22:1455–63.
Koolschijn PCMP, van Haren NEM, Lensvelt-Mulders GJLM, Hulshoff Pol HE, Kahn RS. Brain volume abnormalities in major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30:3719–35.
Repple J, Meinert S, Grotegerd D, Kugel H, Redlich R, Dohm K, et al. A voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging study in unipolar and bipolar depression. Bipolar Disord. 2017;19:23–31.
Sexton CE, Mackay CE, Ebmeier KP. A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies in affective disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:814–23.
Yamada S, Takahashi S, Ukai S, Tsuji T, Iwatani J, Tsuda K, et al. Microstructural abnormalities in anterior callosal fibers and their relationship with cognitive function in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder: A tract-specific analysis study. J Affect Disord. 2015;174:542–8.
Whittle S, Lichter R, Dennison M, Vijayakumar N, Schwartz O, Byrne ML, et al. Structural brain development and depression onset during adolescence: A prospective longitudinal study. Am J Psychiatry. 2014;171:564–71.
McGrath J, Saha S, Chant D, Welham J. Schizophrenia: A concise overview of incidence, prevalence, and mortality. Epidemiol Rev. 2008;30:67–76.
Saha S, Chant D, Welham J, McGrath J. A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia. PLoS Med. 2005;2:0413–33.
Häfner H. Schizophrenia: Do men and women suffer from the same disease? Rev Psiquiatr Clin. 2002;29:267–92.
Fraguas D, Díaz-Caneja CM, Pina-Camacho L, Janssen J, Arango C. Progressive brain changes in children and adolescents with early-onset psychosis: A meta-analysis of longitudinal MRI studies. Schizophr Res. 2016;173:132–9.
Corcoran CM, Kimhy D, Parrilla-Escobar MA, Cressman VL, Stanford AD, Thompson J, et al. The relationship of social function to depressive and negative symptoms in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. Psychol Med. 2011;41:251–61.
Amminger GP, Leicester S, Yung AR, Phillips LJ, Berger GE, Francey SM, et al. Early-onset of symptoms predicts conversion to non-affective psychosis in ultra-high risk individuals. Schizophr Res. 2006;84:67–76.
Barajas A, Ochoa S, Obiols JE, Lalucat-Jo L. Gender differences in individuals at high-risk of psychosis: A comprehensive literature review. Sci World J. 2015;2015:1–13.
Usall J, Ochoa S, Araya S, Márquez M. Gender differences and outcome in schizophrenia: A 2-year follow-up study in a large community sample. Eur Psychiatry. 2003;18:282–4.
Hunt IM, Kapur N, Windfuhr K, Robinson J, Bickley H, Flynn S, et al. Suicide in schizophrenia: Findings from a national clinical survey. J Psychiatr Pract. 2006;12:139–47.
Okada N, Fukunaga M, Yamashita F, Koshiyama D, Yamamori H, Ohi K, et al. Abnormal asymmetries in subcortical brain volume in schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;21:1460–6.
Satterthwaite TD, Wolf DH, Calkins ME, Vandekar SN, Erus G, Ruparel K, et al. Structural brain abnormalities in youth with psychosis spectrum symptoms. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016b;73:515–24.
Van Erp TGM, Hibar DP, Rasmussen JM, Glahn DC, Pearlson GD, Andreassen OA, et al. Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;21:547–53.
Haijma SV, Van Haren N, Cahn W, Koolschijn PCMP, Hulshoff Pol HE, Kahn RS. Brain volumes in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis in over 18 000 subjects. Schizophr Bull. 2013;39:1129–38.
Bora E, Fornito A, Radua J, Walterfang M, Seal M, Wood SJ, et al. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia: A multimodal voxelwise meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Schizophr Res. 2011;127:46–57.
Honea R, Crow TJ, Passingham D, Mackay CE. Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:2233–45.
Rozycki M, Satterthwaite TD, Koutsouleris N, Erus G, Doshi J, Wolf DH, et al. Multisite machine learning analysis provides a robust structural imaging signature of schizophrenia detectable across diverse patient populations and within individuals. Schizophr Bull. (2017).
Glahn DC, Laird AR, Ellison-Wright I, Thelen SM, Robinson JL, Lancaster JL, et al. Meta-analysis of gray matter anomalies in schizophrenia: Application of anatomic likelihood estimation and network analysis. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;64:774–81.
Gupta CN, Calhoun VD, Rachakonda S, Chen J, Patel V, Liu J, et al. Patterns of gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenia based on an international mega-analysis. Schizophr Bull. 2015;41:1133–42.
Shahab S, Stefanik L, Foussias G, Lai MC, Anderson KK, Voineskos AN. Sex and diffusion tensor imaging of white matter in schizophrenia: A systematic review plus meta-analysis of the corpus callosum. Schizophr Bull. 2018;44:203–21.
Adriano F, Caltagirone C, Spalletta G. Hippocampal volume reduction in first-episode and chronic schizophrenia: A review and meta-analysis. Neuroscientist. 2012;18:180–200.
Bois C, Levita L, Ripp I, Owens DCG, Johnstone EC, Whalley HC, et al. Hippocampal, amygdala and nucleus accumbens volume in first-episode schizophrenia patients and individuals at high familial risk: A cross-sectional comparison. Schizophr Res. 2015;165:45–51.
Cannon TD. How schizophrenia develops: Cognitive and brain mechanisms underlying onset of psychosis. Trends Cogn Sci. 2015;19:744–56.
Chan RCK, Di X, McAlonan GM, Gong QY. Brain anatomical abnormalities in high-risk individuals, first-episode, and chronic schizophrenia: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of illness progression. Schizophr Bull. 2011;37:177–88.
Weisinger B, Greenstein D, Mattai A, Clasen L, Lalonde F, Feldman S, et al. Lack of gender influence on cortical and subcortical gray matter development in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2013;39:52–58.
Bartels M, Cacioppo JT, van Beijsterveldt TCEM, Boomsma DI. Exploring the association between well-being and psychopathology in adolescents. Behav Genet. 2013;43:177–90.
Tung I, Li JJ, Meza JI, Jezior KL, Kianmahd JSV, Hentschel PG, et al. Patterns of comorbidity among girls with ADHD: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2016;138:1–13.
Taylor MJ, Lichtenstein P, Larsson H, Anckarsäter H, Greven CU, Ronald A. Is there a female protective effect against attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Evidence from two representative twin samples. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016;55:504–512.e2.
Nakao T, Radua J, Rubia K, Mataix-Cols D. Gray matter volume abnormalities in ADHD: Voxel-based meta-analysis exploring the effects of age and stimulant medication. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:1154–63.
Valera EM, Faraone SV, Murray KE, Seidman LJ. Meta-analysis of structural imaging findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:1361–9.
Castellanos XF, Lee PP, Sharp W, Jeffries NO, Greenstein DK, Clasen LS, et al. Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA. 2002;288:1740–8.
de Zeeuw P, Schnack HG, van Belle J, Weusten J, van Dijk S, Langen M, et al. Differential brain development with low and high IQ in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PLoS One. 2012;7:1–11.
Durston S, Hulshoff Pol HE, Schnack HG, Buitelaar JK, Steenhuis MP, Minderaa RB, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43:332–40.
Makris N, Biederman J, Valera EM, Bush G, Kaiser J, Kennedy DN, et al. Cortical thinning of the attention and executive function networks in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:1364–75.
Shaw P, Eckstrand K, Sharp W, Blumenthal J, Lerch JP, Greenstein D, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2007;104:19649–54.
Shaw P, Malek M, Watson B, Sharp W, Evans A, Greenstein D. Development of cortical surface area and gyrification in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;72:191–7.
Shaw P, Malek M, Watson B, Greenstein D, de Rossi P, Sharp W. Trajectories of cerebral cortical development in childhood and adolescence and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;74:599–606.
van Ewijk H, Heslenfeld DJ, Zwiers MP, Buitelaar JK, Oosterlaan J. Diffusion tensor imaging in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36:1093–106.
Mahone EM, Ranta ME, Crocetti D, O’Brien J, Kaufmann WE, Denckla MB, et al. Comprehensive examination of frontal regions in boys and girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2011;17:1047–57.
Dirlikov B, Shiels Rosch K, Crocetti D, Denckla MB, Mahone EM, Mostofsky SH. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD. Neuroimage Clin. 2015;7:222–9.
Nooner KB, Colcombe SJ, Tobe RH, Mennes M, Benedict MM, Moreno AL, et al. The NKI-Rockland sample: A model for accelerating the pace of discovery science in psychiatry. Front Neurosci. 2012;6:1–11.
Satterthwaite TD, Connolly JJ, Ruparel K, Calkins ME, Jackson C, Elliott MA, et al. The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort: A publicly available resource for the study of normal and abnormal brain development in youth. Neuroimage. 2016a;124:1115–9.
Jernigan TL, Brown TT, Hagler DJ, Akshoomoff N, Bartsch H, Newman E, et al. The Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) data repository. Neuroimage. 2016;124:1149–54.
Ances B, Bookheimer S, Buckner R, Salat D, Smith S, Terpstra M, et al.: Human Connectome Project-Lifespan studies. Date accessed: March 1 2018. https://www.humanconnectome.org/lifespan-studies
Alexander LM, Escalera J, Ai L, Andreotti C, Febre K, Mangone A, et al. Data descriptor: An open resource for transdiagnostic research in pediatric mental health and learning disorders. Sci Data. 2017;4:1–26.
National Institutes of Health: Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD). Date accessed: March 1 2018. https://addictionresearch.nih.gov/abcd-study
Belsky J. Experiencing the lifespan. New York, NY: Worth Publishers; 2007.
Piekarski DJ, Johnson CM, Boivin JR, Thomas AW, Lin WC, Delevich K, et al. Does puberty mark a transition in sensitive periods for plasticity in the associative neocortex? Brain Res. 2017;1654:123–44.
Herting MM, Sowell ER. Puberty and structural brain development in humans. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2017;44:122–37.
Mendle J. Why puberty matters for psychopathology. Child Dev Perspect. 2014;8:218–22.
Chumlea WC, Schubert CM, Roche AF, Kulin HE, Lee PA, Himes JH, et al. Age at menarche and racial comparisons in US girls. Pediatrics. 2003;111:110–3.
Mills KL, Goddings AL, Herting MM, Meuwese R, Blakemore SJ, Crone EA, et al. Structural brain development between childhood and adulthood: Convergence across four longitudinal samples. Neuroimage. 2016;141:273–81.
Juraska JM, Willing J. Pubertal onset as a critical transition for neural development and cognition. Brain Res. 2017;1654:87–94.
Blanco C, Wall M, Lindquist M, Rodriguez-Fernandez J, Franco S, Wang S, et al. Generalizability of neuroimaging studies in 5 common psychiatric disorders based on the National Epidemiological Survey on Alchol and Related Conditions (NESARC). J Clin Psychiatry. 2016;77:1618–25.
Mankiw C, Park MTM, Reardon PK, Fish AM, Clasen LS, Greenstein D, et al. Allometric analysis detects brain size-independent effects of sex and sex chromosome complement on human cerebellar organization. J Neurosci. 2017;37:5221–31. Proposed a novel method for accounting for global sex differences in brain size using allometric norms and showed such scaling could be used to reveal that cerebellar subcomponents are sensitive to sex and sex chromosome dose.
Cahill L. Why sex matters for neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7:477–84.
Cahill L. An issue whose time has come. J Neurosci Res. 2017;95:12–13.
Miller VM, Rocca WA, Faubion SS. Sex differences research, precisionmedicine, and the future of women’s health. J Women’s Heal. 2015;24:969–71.