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  • Kempson and colleagues suggest that existing imaging assays do not quantitatively represent double-strand DNA breaks, and urge the development of more accurate assays.

    • Jake Atkinson
    • Eva Bezak
    • Ivan Kempson
    Comment
  • Olivia Rissland recounts the findings of a paper that was seminal to our understanding of mRNA decay.

    • Olivia S. Rissland
    Journal Club
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling is crucial in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. This Review discusses our current understanding of ROS regulation and sensing in plants, key regulatory hubs that connect ROS signalling with other stress-response pathways and how ROS signalling could be harnessed to increase plant resilience to environmental stress.

    • Ron Mittler
    • Sara I. Zandalinas
    • Frank Van Breusegem
    Review Article
  • Sumoylation regulates thousands of proteins, many of which are nuclear. Recent studies have implicated sumoylation in liquid–liquid phase separation and assembly of nuclear bodies, and have uncovered its roles in immunity and pluripotency and links to disease, thereby opening new therapeutic avenues.

    • Alfred C. O. Vertegaal
    Review Article
  • The non-coding RNA 7S inhibits transcription initiation in mitochondria by preventing the RNA polymerase from interacting with promoter DNA and transcription factors.

    • Eytan Zlotorynski
    Research Highlight
  • The Mediator complex is an important regulator of RNA polymerase II. This Review discusses recent structural insights into Mediator function and proposes a model that reconciles contradictory data on whether enhancer–promoter communication during transcription is direct or indirect.

    • William F. Richter
    • Shraddha Nayak
    • Dylan J. Taatjes
    Review Article
  • RNA silencing through small RNAs is a major antiviral immunity system in plants. Recent findings are uncovering the roles of RNA silencing in immunity against non-viral pathogens, which is mediated by trans-kingdom RNA movements in vesicles or as extracellular nucleoproteins. RNA silencing also enables the crosstalk between other plant immunity systems.

    • Sara Lopez-Gomollon
    • David C. Baulcombe
    Review Article
  • Rensvold et al. provide a resource to characterize the function of mitochondrial proteins and to facilitate the discovery of disease-relevant mutations.

    • Paulina Strzyz
    Research Highlight
  • James Olzmann discusses the groundbreaking work of Ron Kopito and colleagues, which demonstrated that a CFTR mutant is ubiquitinated and degraded by the cytosolic 26S proteasome. This discovery contributed to our understanding of ERAD and had important implications for the development of therapeutic agents for cystic fibrosis.

    • James A. Olzmann
    Journal Club
  • XIST loss causes partial gene reactivation at the inactive X chromosome, resulting in Mediator-dependent expansion of adult mammary stem cells and tumorigenesis.

    • Eytan Zlotorynski
    Research Highlight
  • Homeostasis and function of neurons rely on long-distance, bidirectional microtubule-based transport along the axon, which is driven by both dynein and kinesin motors. How these motors are regulated by a plethora of adaptors and effectors to ensure appropriate and robust distribution of cargos is an area of intense study.

    • Sydney E. Cason
    • Erika L. F. Holzbaur
    Review Article
  • Phosphoinositides are signalling, membrane lipids derived from phosphatidylinositol, whose intracellular distribution and interconversion via phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases is tightly coupled to membrane dynamics. Accordingly, phosphoinositides are now recognized as key regulators of endocytic and exocytic traffic, the autolysosomal system, and membrane contact site organization and function.

    • York Posor
    • Wonyul Jang
    • Volker Haucke
    Review Article
  • Cail et al. introduce a platform to study the role of plasma membrane curvature during clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    • Paulina Strzyz
    Research Highlight
  • Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that transduce hormonal, nutrient, metabolite and redox signals into regulation of metabolic genes, in particular the transcriptional control of energy metabolism. Accordingly, nuclear receptors have central roles in adapting gene expression to changing energetic demands, thereby maintaining cellular energy homeostasis

    • Charlotte Scholtes
    • Vincent Giguère
    Review Article
  • Histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9)-methylated heterochromatin ensures transcriptional silencing of repetitive elements and genes, and its deregulation leads to impaired cell and tissue identity, premature aging and cancer. Recent studies in mammals clarified the roles H3K9-specific histone methyltransferases in ensuring transcriptional homeostasis during tissue differentiation.

    • Jan Padeken
    • Stephen P. Methot
    • Susan M. Gasser
    Review Article
  • Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, heat, cold and flooding, have profound effects on plant growth and survival. Adaptation and tolerance to such stresses require sophisticated sensing, signalling and stress response mechanisms. Shroeder and colleagues discuss recent insights into how plant hormones control such responses. Understanding these mechanisms opens opportunities for agricultural applications.

    • Rainer Waadt
    • Charles A. Seller
    • Julian I. Schroeder
    Review Article