Volume 15 Issue 1, January 2018

Volume 15 Issue 1

"The daisies of the gut" — Cover image supplied by Maxime M. Mahe and Holly M. Poling, Department of Pediatric Surgery at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, USA. Human intestinal organoids (HIOs) were generated from pluripotent stem cells through a directed differentiation process in vitro. The HIOs were then transplanted under the kidney capsule of immunocompromised mice, where they developed into complex intestinal tissue resembling the human intestine. The image depicts an epithelial cross-section of a transplanted HIO. Epithelial cells form saccular structures at the base of the epithelium called crypts, which are surrounded by endothelial vessels.

Comment

  • Comment |

    Surrogate end points are often used in clinical trials where the time to clinical outcomes is long. In patients with liver disease, these surrogate outcomes are rarely validated. Without validation, treatment effects reported in trials might not directly translate to patient benefit after licensing.

    • Ian A. Rowe

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    At the squamocolumnar junction of mice and humans,a new study has identified a unique population of transitional basal cells that express molecular markers of both oesophageal stratified squamous epithelium and gastrointestinal columnar epithelium. These transitional basal cells are an attractive candidate for the cell of origin for Barrett oesophagus.

    • Rhonda F. Souza
    •  & Stuart J. Spechler

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    NAFLD is growing in prevalence worldwide, and has emerged as a leading cause of end-stage liver disease in many countries. In this Review, the authors describe the global epidemiology of NAFLD, discuss associated risk factors and outline challenges for screening and management.

    • Zobair Younossi
    • , Quentin M. Anstee
    • , Milena Marietti
    • , Timothy Hardy
    • , Linda Henry
    • , Mohammed Eslam
    • , Jacob George
    •  & Elisabetta Bugianesi
  • Review Article |

    A wide variety of environmental triggers have been associated with IBD pathogenesis, including the gut microbiota, diet, pollution and early-life factors. This Review discusses the latest evidence and progress towards better understanding the environmental factors associated with IBD.

    • Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan
    • , Charles N. Bernstein
    • , Dimitrios Iliopoulos
    • , Andrew Macpherson
    • , Markus F. Neurath
    • , Raja A. Raja Ali
    • , Stephan R. Vavricka
    •  & Claudio Fiocchi
  • Review Article |

    Patients who are obese and also consume excess alcohol are at increased risk of liver-related disease. In this Review, Parker and colleagues discuss how alcohol and obesity affect adipose tissue function, and describe the importance of the adipose-tissue–liver axis in liver disease pathogenesis and outcomes.

    • Richard Parker
    • , Seung-Jin Kim
    •  & Bin Gao

Perspectives

    Opinion

  • Opinion |

    Traditionally, biopsy has been a mainstay and gold standard for the diagnosis of coeliac disease, but a biopsy-sparing approach has been suggested and adopted for the assessment of children in some countries. Here, the authors outline the current diagnostic methods for coeliac disease, discussing the pros and cons of a no-biopsy approach for both adults and children.

    • Norelle R. Reilly
    • , Steffen Husby
    • , David S. Sanders
    •  & Peter H. R. Green