Volume 14 Issue 10, October 2017

Volume 14 Issue 10

Cover image supplied by Carolina Tropini, Sonnenburg Group, Stanford University, USA, who is funded by a James S. McDonnell fellowship. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of mouse colon colonized with gnotobiotic microbiota. Tissue was stained by DAPI and the mucus labelled with UEA-1 (Ulex europaeus agglutinin I), bacteria were labelled with fluorescent DNA probes.

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    A new study reveals an involvement of SLC22A3 in the development of familial oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Reduced expression of SLC22A3 is detected not only in ESCC tumours but also in non-tumour tissues of patients with familial ESCC. Interestingly, adenosine-to-inosine editing of SLC22A3 mRNA is proposed to drive early tumour invasion and metastasis, by inhibiting SLC22A3 expression.

    • Kazuko Nishikura
  • News & Views |

    A large-scale comprehensive analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the integration of six distinct data platforms has pinpointed novel oncogenic processes and prognostic subgroups. These findings confirm previously identified molecular subclasses and fuel the need for a clear strategy of precision medicine in HCC.

    • Daniela Sia
    •  & Josep M. Llovet


  • Review Article |

    Changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota have been linked to IBD, but a direct causal association has yet to be established in humans. This Review discusses the evidence supporting dysbiosis in the gut microbiota in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, exploring evidence from animal models and the translation to human disease.

    • Josephine Ni
    • , Gary D. Wu
    • , Lindsey Albenberg
    •  & Vesselin T. Tomov
  • Review Article |

    Clinicians face a rapidly evolving set of challenges and opportunities for generating insights into the health of patients from microbiome analysis. Here, the authors summarize the major decision points confronting new entrants to the field or for those designing new projects in microbiome research.

    • Marcus J. Claesson
    • , Adam G. Clooney
    •  & Paul W. O'Toole
  • Review Article |

    IBD is associated with markedly reduced intestinal mucosal oxygen levels. In this Review, the authors discuss the role of mucosal hypoxia and hypoxia-induced signalling in IBD and identify potential targets for therapies, focusing on the cell-specific functions of hypoxia-inducible factors, prolyl hydroxylases and nuclear factor-κB.

    • Sophie Van Welden
    • , Andrew C. Selfridge
    •  & Pieter Hindryckx
  • Review Article |

    Endocrine (such as diabetes) and exocrine (such as pancreatitis) disorders of the pancreas have a substantial burden worldwide. This Review explores the potential of regenerative medicine and cell-based approaches to restore both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, describing insights into cell replacement, implantation and reprogramming.

    • Cara Ellis
    • , Adam Ramzy
    •  & Timothy J. Kieffer