Volume 19 Issue 5, May 2018

Volume 19 Issue 5

Myeloid responses to traumatic brain injury

Meningeal vascular damage accompanies mild traumatic brain injury. McGavern and colleagues report that distinct myeloid cell subsets are temporally recruited to the lesion and are critical for meningeal re-vascularization after such injury.

See Russo et al.

Image: Matthew Russo. Cover Design: Erin Dewalt.

Comment

  • Comment |

    Mice are generally the ‘go-to’ organism for modeling of the human immune system, but this often leads to inaccurate interpretations. Ernst and Carvunis argue in this Comment that taking into account the evolutionary and environmental context can generate better models of disease.

    • Peter B. Ernst
    •  & Anne-Ruxandra Carvunis

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    The activating natural killer cell receptor NKG2C can specifically recognize peptides derived from the cytomegalovirus protein UL40 in the context of HLA-E. This drives the expansion of a population of adaptive NKG2C+ natural killer cells.

    • Carsten Watzl
  • News & Views |

    γδ T cells accumulate with age in adipose tissue and produce the cytokine IL-17, which controls the homeostasis of regulatory T cells and adaptive thermogenesis. Thus, maintenance of core body temperature unexpectedly relies on these adipose tissue–resident γδ17 T cells.

    • Pedro H. Papotto
    •  & Bruno Silva-Santos
  • News & Views |

    The role of the transcription factor c-Maf varies in different CD4+ T cell subsets and can be associated with either pro-inflammatory activity or anti-inflammatory activity, depending on the cell context.

    • W. Nicholas Haining
    •  & Sarah A. Weiss
  • News & Views |

    Myeloid cells exhibit different inflammatory phenotypes after brain injury, yet the relative mechanistic roles for these diverse cell types in post-traumatic tissue damage and repair remain controversial.

    • David J. Loane
    •  & Alan I. Faden
  • News & Views |

    Evasion of the immune system and global activation of the immune system are hallmarks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Studies reveal that macrophages might be responsible for HIV-associated pathogenesis via resistance to killing and induction of chronic inflammation.

    • Peter Kelleher
    •  & Xiao-Ning Xu

Letters

  • Letter |

    Harris and colleagues show that the cytokine TGF-β is required for colonization of the microglial niche and maintenance of central nervous system integrity. Acute loss of TGF-β leads to proinflammatory responses and fatal demyelinating disease.

    • Harald Lund
    • , Melanie Pieber
    • , Roham Parsa
    • , David Grommisch
    • , Ewoud Ewing
    • , Lara Kular
    • , Jinming Han
    • , Keying Zhu
    • , Jik Nijssen
    • , Eva Hedlund
    • , Maria Needhamsen
    • , Sabrina Ruhrmann
    • , André Ortlieb Guerreiro-Cacais
    • , Rasmus Berglund
    • , Maria J. Forteza
    • , Daniel F. J. Ketelhuth
    • , Oleg Butovsky
    • , Maja Jagodic
    • , Xing-Mei Zhang
    •  & Robert A. Harris

Articles

  • Article |

    NK cells constrain infection by cytomegalovirus. Romagnani and colleagues show that human NKG2C+ NK cells recognize distinct HCMV UL40 viral peptides, which can vary among viral isolates. NKG2C+ NK cells thereby demonstrate adaptive-like recognition that can discriminate between closely related viral strains.

    • Quirin Hammer
    • , Timo Rückert
    • , Eva Maria Borst
    • , Josefine Dunst
    • , André Haubner
    • , Pawel Durek
    • , Frederik Heinrich
    • , Gilles Gasparoni
    • , Marina Babic
    • , Adriana Tomic
    • , Gabriella Pietra
    • , Mikalai Nienen
    • , Igor Wolfgang Blau
    • , Jörg Hofmann
    • , Il-Kang Na
    • , Immo Prinz
    • , Christian Koenecke
    • , Philipp Hemmati
    • , Nina Babel
    • , Renate Arnold
    • , Jörn Walter
    • , Kevin Thurley
    • , Mir-Farzin Mashreghi
    • , Martin Messerle
    •  & Chiara Romagnani
  • Article |

    Lynch, Brenner and colleagues find that tissue-resident γδ T cells reside in adipose tissues in both mice and humans. These cells play essential roles in regulating thermogenesis and supporting age-dependent increases in adipose-tissue regulatory T cell populations.

    • Ayano C. Kohlgruber
    • , Shani T. Gal-Oz
    • , Nelson M. LaMarche
    • , Moto Shimazaki
    • , Danielle Duquette
    • , Hung N. Nguyen
    • , Amir I. Mina
    • , Tyler Paras
    • , Ali Tavakkoli
    • , Ulrich von Andrian
    • , Alexander S. Banks
    • , Tal Shay
    • , Michael B. Brenner
    •  & Lydia Lynch
  • Article |

    Macrophages can be an important niche for chronic viral infection. Walker and colleagues demonstrate that macrophages are intrinsically resistant to CTL-mediated killing and can thereby contribute to the maintenance of HIV reservoirs and chronic inflammation.

    • Kiera L. Clayton
    • , David R. Collins
    • , Josh Lengieza
    • , Musie Ghebremichael
    • , Farokh Dotiwala
    • , Judy Lieberman
    •  & Bruce D. Walker
  • Article |

    Higher-order TCRs have been postulated to maintain high antigen sensitivity and trigger signaling. Huppa and colleagues use various investigative techniques and find exclusively monomeric TCR–CD3 complexes that drive the recognition of antigenic pMHC.

    • Mario Brameshuber
    • , Florian Kellner
    • , Benedikt K. Rossboth
    • , Haisen Ta
    • , Kevin Alge
    • , Eva Sevcsik
    • , Janett Göhring
    • , Markus Axmann
    • , Florian Baumgart
    • , Nicholas R. J. Gascoigne
    • , Simon J. Davis
    • , Hannes Stockinger
    • , Gerhard J. Schütz
    •  & Johannes B. Huppa
  • Article |

    The transcription factor c-Maf controls IL-10 production in T cells. O’Garra and colleagues use systems and in vivo functional analysis of T cell subsets to reveal distinct context-specific roles for c-Maf.

    • Leona Gabryšová
    • , Marisol Alvarez-Martinez
    • , Raphaëlle Luisier
    • , Luke S. Cox
    • , Jan Sodenkamp
    • , Caroline Hosking
    • , Damián Pérez-Mazliah
    • , Charlotte Whicher
    • , Yashaswini Kannan
    • , Krzysztof Potempa
    • , Xuemei Wu
    • , Leena Bhaw
    • , Hagen Wende
    • , Michael H. Sieweke
    • , Greg Elgar
    • , Mark Wilson
    • , James Briscoe
    • , Vicki Metzis
    • , Jean Langhorne
    • , Nicholas M. Luscombe
    •  & Anne O’Garra