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Tumour-secreted microvesicles carry bioactive molecules that can be transferred to recipient cells, impacting tumour progression. A study now shows that ARF6 drives miRNA loading into tumour microvesicles through interaction with pre-miRNA–Exportin-5 complexes, thus shedding light on specific cargo packaging mechanisms.
Different subclones cooperate to support tumour heterogeneity and growth, but the effect on metastasis is unclear. A new study now shows that, as non-cell-autonomous drivers, minor cancer cell subclones instigate growth at distant sites of otherwise non-metastatic cancer cells. This is mediated systemically by perturbation in the metastatic tissue.
The ability of cancer cells to adapt to external and internal stresses is critical for tumourigenesis. A new study now shows that the integrated stress response is critical for tumour cell adaptation to stress induced by c-MYC activation, providing mechanistic insights into tumour responses to intrinsic stresses with implications for cancer therapies.
Sigal et al. report that Rspo3 regulates Lgr5 cells in the gastric gland base, induces their differentiation into secretory cells and stimulates epithelial antimicrobial defence against H. pylori infection.
Tian et al. report that the chromatin-related factor Whsc1 regulates the exit from pluripotency and germ layer specification of mouse embryonic stem cells by binding to enhancers of mesendodermal regulators.
Fu et al. report the transition of ESCs into a 2-cell-embyro-like state induced by Dux involves two steps and can be prevented by Myc and Dnmt1, which inhibit the downregulation of pluripotency genes and the activation of 2C+-upregulated elements.
Clancy et al. delineate a pathway for pre-miRNA delivery into nascent extracellular vesicles released from tumour cells and show that shed vesicles contain machinery allowing cell-free pre-miRNA processing.
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) promotes MYC-driven tumour progression. Tameire et al. identify ATF4 and its target eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) as regulators of MYC-mediated amino acid biosynthesis and protein synthesis, thereby modulating tumour progression and survival in mice.
Simunovic et al. use human embryonic stem cells to generate a three-dimensional model of a human pre-gastrulation epiblast and show that anterior–posterior symmetry breaking can be induced by BMP4 and WNT signalling.