Volume 525 Issue 7569, 17 September 2015

To tackle the challenges facing society � energy, water, climate, food, health � scientists and social scientists must work together. Yet research that transcends traditional academic boundaries is still unfashionable and poorly rewarded. This special issue of Nature examines what governments, funders, journals, universities and academics must do to make interdisciplinary work a joy rather than a curse. Cover: Dean Trippe

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Relationships between industry and researchers can be hard to define, but universities and other institutions must do more to scrutinize the work of their scientists for conflicts of interest.

  • Editorial |

    Interdisciplinary science must break down barriers between fields to build common ground.

  • Editorial |

    All involved in animal research must ensure that rules for ethical experiments are observed.

World View

Research Highlights

Social Selection

Seven Days

News

Correction

News Feature

Comment

Books & Arts

Correspondence

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Memories are stored in the complex network of neurons in the brain. With the help of innovative tools to manipulate the connections between neurons, memories in mice can now be erased with a beam of light. See Article p.333

    • Ju Lu
    •  & Yi Zuo
  • News & Views |

    Many catalysts comprise metal nanoparticles on solid supports. The discovery that single atoms of palladium anchored to a solid support also exhibit high catalytic activity might help to conserve the supply of this and related rare metals.

    • John Meurig Thomas
  • News & Views |

    Research on guppies provides evidence that phenotypic plasticity — an organism's ability to alter its characteristics in response to changes in the environment — can both constrain and facilitate adaptive evolution. See Letter p.372

    • Juha Merilä
  • News & Views |

    Chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem cells make it hard to cure many forms of the disease. Repositioning an existing drug to tackle this problem could significantly improve treatment for one form of leukaemia. See Letter p.380

    • Tessa Holyoake
    •  & David Vetrie
  • News & Views |

    X-ray images of cuprate superconductors reveal the fractured, defect-riddled backbone on which superconductivity develops. The results take us a step closer to understanding how supercurrent flows on small spatial scales. See Letter p.359

    • Erica W. Carlson
  • News & Views |

    Estimates of worldwide deaths associated with exposure to fine particles in atmospheric pollution provide some surprising results. The findings will guide future research and act as a wake-up call for policymakers. See Letter p.367

    • Michael Jerrett

Article

  • Article |

    A new light-activated probe that targets recently active neuronal spines for manipulation induces shrinkage of recently potentiated spines following a motor learning task; spine shrinkage disrupted learning, suggesting a causal relationship between the specific subset of targeted spines and the learned behaviour.

    • Akiko Hayashi-Takagi
    • , Sho Yagishita
    • , Mayumi Nakamura
    • , Fukutoshi Shirai
    • , Yi I. Wu
    • , Amanda L. Loshbaugh
    • , Brian Kuhlman
    • , Klaus M. Hahn
    •  & Haruo Kasai
  • Article |

    Using biochemical fractionation and mass spectrometry, animal protein complexes are identified from nine species in parallel, and, along with genome sequence information, complex conservation is investigated and over one million protein–protein interactions are predicted in 122 eukaryotes.

    • Cuihong Wan
    • , Blake Borgeson
    • , Sadhna Phanse
    • , Fan Tu
    • , Kevin Drew
    • , Greg Clark
    • , Xuejian Xiong
    • , Olga Kagan
    • , Julian Kwan
    • , Alexandr Bezginov
    • , Kyle Chessman
    • , Swati Pal
    • , Graham Cromar
    • , Ophelia Papoulas
    • , Zuyao Ni
    • , Daniel R. Boutz
    • , Snejana Stoilova
    • , Pierre C. Havugimana
    • , Xinghua Guo
    • , Ramy H. Malty
    • , Mihail Sarov
    • , Jack Greenblatt
    • , Mohan Babu
    • , W. Brent Derry
    • , Elisabeth R. Tillier
    • , John B. Wallingford
    • , John Parkinson
    • , Edward M. Marcotte
    •  & Andrew Emili
  • Article |

    This study describes a new model of eukaryotic replication termination in which converging leading strands pass each other unhindered and the replicative DNA helicase is unloaded late, after all strands have been ligated.

    • James M. Dewar
    • , Magda Budzowska
    •  & Johannes C. Walter

Letter

  • Letter |

    The amplitude and sinusoid-like shape of the optical variability of the light curve of PG 1302-102 is best fitted by relativistic Doppler boosting of emission from a compact, steadily accreting, unequal-mass binary, which is consistent with archival ultraviolet data, and suggests the existence of a binary black hole in the relativistic regime.

    • Daniel J. D'Orazio
    • , Zoltán Haiman
    •  & David Schiminovich
  • Letter |

    Exceptional points are singularities in non-Hermitian systems that can produce unusual effects, and it is shown that a Dirac cone in a photonic crystal can generate a continuous ring of exceptional points through flattening the tip of the cone.

    • Bo Zhen
    • , Chia Wei Hsu
    • , Yuichi Igarashi
    • , Ling Lu
    • , Ido Kaminer
    • , Adi Pick
    • , Song-Liang Chua
    • , John D. Joannopoulos
    •  & Marin Soljačić
  • Letter |

    Micro X-ray diffraction imaging of the spatial distribution of charge-density-wave puddles and quenched disorder in HgBa2CuO4 + y reveals a complex, inhomogeneous spatial landscape due to the interplay between charge and dopant order.

    • G. Campi
    • , A. Bianconi
    • , N. Poccia
    • , G. Bianconi
    • , L. Barba
    • , G. Arrighetti
    • , D. Innocenti
    • , J. Karpinski
    • , N. D. Zhigadlo
    • , S. M. Kazakov
    • , M. Burghammer
    • , M. v. Zimmermann
    • , M. Sprung
    •  & A. Ricci
  • Letter |

    Experimentally transplanting guppies to evolve in a novel, predator-free environment reveals that the direction of plasticity in gene expression is usually opposite to the direction of adaptive evolution; that is, those genes whose expression changes are disadvantageous are more strongly selected upon than those whose changes are advantageous.

    • Cameron K. Ghalambor
    • , Kim L. Hoke
    • , Emily W. Ruell
    • , Eva K. Fischer
    • , David N. Reznick
    •  & Kimberly A. Hughes
  • Letter |

    Although imatinib gives good clinical results in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), residual disease attributed to quiescent CML stem cells remains in many patients; here glitazones are shown to reduce the pool of CML stem cells and achieve lasting disease eradication in CML patients in combination with imatinib.

    • Stéphane Prost
    • , Francis Relouzat
    • , Marc Spentchian
    • , Yasmine Ouzegdouh
    • , Joseph Saliba
    • , Gérald Massonnet
    • , Jean-Paul Beressi
    • , Els Verhoeyen
    • , Victoria Raggueneau
    • , Benjamin Maneglier
    • , Sylvie Castaigne
    • , Christine Chomienne
    • , Stany Chrétien
    • , Philippe Rousselot
    •  & Philippe Leboulch
  • Letter |

    Splicing factors such as BUD31 are identified in a synthetic-lethal screen with cells overexpressing the transcription factor MYC; oncogenic MYC leads to an increase in pre-mRNA synthesis, and spliceosome inhibition impairs the growth and tumorigenicity of MYC-dependent breast cancers, suggesting that spliceosome components may be potential therapeutic targets for MYC-driven cancers.

    • Tiffany Y.-T. Hsu
    • , Lukas M. Simon
    • , Nicholas J. Neill
    • , Richard Marcotte
    • , Azin Sayad
    • , Christopher S. Bland
    • , Gloria V. Echeverria
    • , Tingting Sun
    • , Sarah J. Kurley
    • , Siddhartha Tyagi
    • , Kristen L. Karlin
    • , Rocio Dominguez-Vidaña
    • , Jessica D. Hartman
    • , Alexander Renwick
    • , Kathleen Scorsone
    • , Ronald J. Bernardi
    • , Samuel O. Skinner
    • , Antrix Jain
    • , Mayra Orellana
    • , Chandraiah Lagisetti
    • , Ido Golding
    • , Sung Y. Jung
    • , Joel R. Neilson
    • , Xiang H.-F. Zhang
    • , Thomas A. Cooper
    • , Thomas R. Webb
    • , Benjamin G. Neel
    • , Chad A. Shaw
    •  & Thomas F. Westbrook
  • Letter |

    The Tet2 enzyme, which catalyses de novo hydroxymethylation of DNA, is shown here to act as a transcriptional repressor by recruiting the histone deacetylase Hdac2 to the Il6 promoter in the course of resolution of the LPS-induced inflammatory response.

    • Qian Zhang
    • , Kai Zhao
    • , Qicong Shen
    • , Yanmei Han
    • , Yan Gu
    • , Xia Li
    • , Dezhi Zhao
    • , Yiqi Liu
    • , Chunmei Wang
    • , Xiang Zhang
    • , Xiaoping Su
    • , Juan Liu
    • , Wei Ge
    • , Ross L. Levine
    • , Nan Li
    •  & Xuetao Cao
  • Letter |

    The Tus–Ter termination site of Escherichia coli is not completely efficient in stopping DNA replication, with about half of replisomes bypassing this blockade; here the speed of the replication machinery is shown to determine the outcome of the encounter between the replisome and Tus–Ter.

    • Mohamed M. Elshenawy
    • , Slobodan Jergic
    • , Zhi-Qiang Xu
    • , Mohamed A. Sobhy
    • , Masateru Takahashi
    • , Aaron J. Oakley
    • , Nicholas E. Dixon
    •  & Samir M. Hamdan
  • Letter |

    This study demonstrates a role for the Integrator complex in the stimulus-dependent induction of eRNAs and their 3′ processing; together with previously known roles of Integrator in transcription elongation and RNA processing, these results indicate that Integrator has broad functions in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression.

    • Fan Lai
    • , Alessandro Gardini
    • , Anda Zhang
    •  & Ramin Shiekhattar
  • Letter |

    The crystal structure of the large GTPase dynamin tetramer is presented, suggesting a mechanism by which oligomerization of dynamin is regulated, and revealing how mutations that interfere with tetramer formation and autoinhibition are of relevance to understanding the congenital muscle disorders Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy and centronuclear myopathy.

    • Thomas F. Reubold
    • , Katja Faelber
    • , Nuria Plattner
    • , York Posor
    • , Katharina Ketel
    • , Ute Curth
    • , Jeanette Schlegel
    • , Roopsee Anand
    • , Dietmar J. Manstein
    • , Frank Noé
    • , Volker Haucke
    • , Oliver Daumke
    •  & Susanne Eschenburg

Technology Feature

Feature

  • Feature |

    A toxic relationship between junior scientist and adviser can quickly turn career prospects sour.

    • Chris Woolston

Q&A

  • Q&A |

    A young scientist who helped to uncover the gene-editing technology CRISPR starts his own lab.

    • Virginia Gewin

Correction

Futures

Brief Communications Arising

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