2021 tables: Countries/territories - physical sciences

The 2021 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020.

Table criteria

# Country/territory Share 2019 Share 2020 Count 2020 Change in Adjusted Share* 2019–2020
1 United States of America (USA) 5144.59 5403.24 8378 -2.4%
2 China 3792.41 4271.90 6214 4.7%
3 Germany 1520.58 1638.97 3491 0.2%
4 United Kingdom (UK) 1033.23 1124.17 2624 1.1%
5 Japan 979.59 1094.09 2046 3.8%
6 South Korea 704.90 752.33 1280 -0.8%
7 France 726.64 741.07 1862 -5.2%
8 Italy 517.28 552.85 1429 -0.7%
9 Switzerland 501.84 516.59 1338 -4.3%
10 Spain 395.74 442.47 1204 3.9%
11 Canada 344.43 395.19 970 6.6%
12 India 352.42 344.16 698 -9.2%
13 Australia 295.99 316.88 884 -0.5%
14 Russia 282.48 310.15 880 2.0%
15 Netherlands 312.09 308.49 837 -8.1%
16 Singapore 266.49 293.60 565 2.4%
17 Israel 250.65 256.35 542 -4.9%
18 Sweden 198.54 225.69 669 5.7%
19 Brazil 149.97 164.40 493 1.9%
20 Taiwan 127.14 149.61 487 9.4%
21 Belgium 134.80 135.14 472 -6.8%
22 Poland 121.66 126.84 522 -3.1%
23 Austria 119.85 125.92 470 -2.3%
24 Denmark 120.27 124.97 404 -3.4%
25 Chile 76.48 89.64 305 8.9%
26 Czech Republic 84.10 78.91 351 -12.8%
27 Finland 74.42 71.20 270 -11.1%
28 Iran 81.06 67.83 165 -22.2%
29 Portugal 50.06 56.89 264 5.6%
30 Saudi Arabia 51.74 54.20 162 -2.6%
31 Argentina 48.21 52.16 167 0.6%
32 Mexico 40.76 51.51 218 17.4%
33 Ireland 39.30 49.91 229 18.0%
34 Norway 45.65 46.35 219 -5.6%
35 Turkey 38.48 37.31 234 -9.9%
36 Hungary 29.33 36.92 220 17.0%
37 Greece 36.30 36.88 212 -5.6%
38 Slovenia 22.66 30.47 142 25.0%
39 South Africa 32.61 25.04 161 -28.6%
40 New Zealand 20.66 20.38 114 -8.3%
41 Vietnam 9.80 16.54 58 56.9%
42 Romania 12.32 15.52 159 17.1%
43 Pakistan 11.30 14.27 128 17.3%
44 Ukraine 14.72 13.82 180 -12.8%
45 Croatia 8.13 13.51 123 54.5%
46 Thailand 17.02 12.33 112 -32.7%
47 Colombia 12.05 10.97 163 -15.3%
48 Luxembourg 12.94 10.03 26 -28.0%
49 United Arab Emirates 4.46 10.00 54 108.3%
50 Iceland 5.20 9.75 27 74.3%

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals through 2022, in 2023 64 health-science journals were added to the Index. The 146 journals in the Nature Index were selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at nature.com/nature-index/.
  5. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2022 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.