2021 tables: Countries/territories

The 2021 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020.

Table criteria

# Country/territory Share 2019 Share 2020 Count 2020 Change in Adjusted Share 2019-2020*
1 United States of America (USA) 20,183.51 20,632.83 29,176 -1.4%
2 China 13,583.85 14,262.30 19,099 1.2%
3 Germany 4,558.38 4,754.31 9,322 0.6%
4 United Kingdom (UK) 3,779.62 3,881.19 8,221 -1.0%
5 Japan 3,032.64 3,272.73 5,291 4.1%
6 France 2,251.55 2,225.64 5,114 -4.7%
7 Canada 1,606.11 1,624.33 3,591 -2.5%
8 South Korea 1,436.43 1,517.44 2,536 1.9%
9 Switzerland 1,491.03 1,443.96 3,305 -6.6%
10 Australia 1,264.14 1,313.61 3,156 0.2%
11 Spain 1,168.03 1,239.22 2,962 2.3%
12 Italy 1,036.28 1,133.02 2,896 5.4%
13 India 1,040.69 1,037.63 1,655 -3.9%
14 Netherlands 933.31 972.68 2,549 0.5%
15 Sweden 626.47 700.11 1,927 7.8%
16 Israel 609.68 644.60 1,288 1.9%
17 Singapore 607.71 635.09 1,293 0.8%
18 Russia 468.24 534.07 1,455 10.0%
19 Belgium 413.06 432.54 1,290 1.0%
20 Taiwan 372.75 420.66 1,032 8.8%
21 Denmark 389.06 408.20 1,262 1.2%
22 Austria 368.50 378.51 1,147 -1.0%
23 Brazil 280.48 308.17 887 5.9%
24 Poland 250.10 271.15 917 4.5%
25 Czech Republic 230.07 222.37 729 -6.8%
26 Norway 229.72 215.26 799 -9.6%
27 Finland 218.63 212.02 729 -6.5%
28 Portugal 144.82 151.01 568 0.5%
29 Saudi Arabia 135.62 138.43 436 -1.6%
30 Ireland 116.92 136.25 492 12.4%
31 New Zealand 131.64 133.50 438 -2.2%
32 Chile 119.70 132.00 461 6.3%
33 Argentina 94.38 115.33 359 17.8%
34 Hungary 81.15 106.46 407 26.5%
35 Mexico 94.67 106.37 407 8.3%
36 Iran 112.21 105.24 266 -9.6%
37 Greece 86.18 89.01 386 -0.4%
38 South Africa 83.37 85.02 395 -1.7%
39 Turkey 64.51 71.46 359 6.8%
40 Slovenia 46.54 49.67 199 2.9%
41 Thailand 49.00 49.34 224 -2.9%
42 Croatia 20.93 31.04 190 43.0%
43 Iceland 25.26 28.76 98 9.8%
44 United Arab Emirates 21.20 27.10 123 23.3%
45 Vietnam 16.35 26.17 104 54.3%
46 Estonia 25.87 23.63 187 -11.9%
47 Ukraine 23.24 22.73 219 -5.7%
48 Romania 24.19 21.03 209 -16.2%
49 Colombia 28.01 21.00 233 -27.7%
50 Luxembourg 21.34 20.55 63 -7.2%

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at nature.com/nature-index/.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2021 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.