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Since the initial isolation of HIV more than 30 years ago, research has elucidated the viral life cycle, how HIV interacts with its host and the mechanisms of pathogenesis. Alongside these seminal discoveries, anti-retroviral drugs and additional treatment options have been developed that aim to prevent and cure HIV infection. Despite this progress, the AIDS pandemic is still ongoing; approximately 37 million people are infected with HIV worldwide, and infection remains incurable. With this collection, we hope to bring renewed attention to the latest developments in HIV research and how they are affecting efforts towards prevention, treatment and cure.
Millions of people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) globally. Antiretroviral therapy offers substantial benefit to those infected or at risk of infection — controlling viraemia and delaying the onset of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Here, the authors describe the basic and clinical research advances in this important global health issue.
The isolation of HIV-1 was a fundamental step for understanding HIV and the disease it causes. Here, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Anna Laura Ross and Jean-François Delfraissy look back on three decades of research that have changed the lives of people infected with HIV and have inspired hope for a cure.
In this article, Eric Freed reviews recent progress in elucidating the steps involved in HIV-1 assembly, release and maturation, highlighting how these events are orchestrated by the viral Gag precursor protein and how this information is being used to develop novel anti-HIV-1 therapeutics.
In this Review, Campbell and Hope describe the interactions between the HIV-1 capsid core and several cellular factors that enable efficient HIV-1 genome replication, timely core disassembly, nuclear import and viral integration into the genome of the target cell.
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has revolutionized the treatment of HIV-1 infection, but the mechanistic basis of successful treatment is poorly understood. In this Opinion article, Siliciano and Laskey present a model to assess the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs and argue that this is a more accurate metric to predict the success of cART than current metrics.
Recent efforts have focused on the development of therapies that could eradicate HIV-1 infection or achieve a durable remission of viraemia in the absence of antiretroviral therapy; however, targeting viral quiescence within specific cellular reservoirs so that residual infection can be cleared remains a challenge. In this Review, Margolis and colleagues explore new approaches to eradicate established HIV-1 infection.
In this Review, Malim and colleagues discuss the evidence that type I interferons (IFNs) can control HIV-1 replicationin vivoand debate the controversial role of IFNs in promoting the pathological sequelae of chronic HIV-1 infection.
HIV-1 infection typically results from the transmission of a single viral variant, the transmitted/founder (T/F) virus. In this Review, Joseph and colleagues discuss how studying these T/F viruses contributes to a better understanding of HIV-1 transmission and affects prevention strategies.
In this Opinion article, the authors provide an overview of the recent work that has been carried out investigating broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies and their thoughts on the future prospects of the antibody-based prevention of HIV-1 infection.
Viral reservoirs pose a major challenge in the efforts towards curing HIV. Here, Churchill, Deeks, Margolis, Siliciano and Swanstrom discuss the cells and tissues that constitute the viral reservoir, how best to measure it and how to target this source of persistent infection.
Although studies in 2D cell culture systems have provided great insights into the biology and pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, such studies cannot account for many aspects of host physiology that affect HIV-1in vivo. Fackler et al. discuss the development and application of more integrative studies, including organotypic 3D culture systems, small-animal models and advanced live-cell imaging, and the impact of such studies on our understanding of the mechanisms of HIV-1 spread.
Kirchhoff and colleagues discuss the discovery of novel antimicrobial peptides by systematic screening of complex peptide and protein libraries that have been derived from human bodily fluids and tissues, with a focus on the isolation of endogenous agents that affect HIV-1 infection.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often overlooked in men with HIV, despite its high prevalence in affected men of all ages. In this Review, Santi and colleagues discuss the aetiology and social issues associated with ED in men with HIV, and provide useful advice for the clinician treating such patients.
HCV and HIV co-infection is associated with accelerated hepatic fibrosis progression and higher rates of liver decompensation and death compared to HCV monoinfection. However, with multiple direct acting antiviral agents in development to treat HCV, a unique opportunity exists to redefine the treatment paradigm for co-infected patients. In this Review, the authors address the epidemiology, natural history, pathogenesis and management of HIV and HCV co-infection.
HIV infection is associated with renal diseases including HIV-associated nephropathy, HIV-immune-complex kidney disease, thrombotic microangiopathy and disorders associated with nephrotoxic HIV therapies. Here, the authors review the epidemiology, histopathology, mechanisms, genetic susceptibility, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated nephropathies and highlight remaining questions for future research.
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has substantially prolonged the lives of patients with HIV infection, but these individuals have an increased risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction compared with uninfected individuals. In this Review, Reiss and colleagues discuss the control of both traditional and immune risk factors, and the appropriate selection of cART regimens, to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications in patients with HIV.