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The Guttmacher–Lancet Commission’s report on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All coincides with raised awareness of this topic as a result of global movements such as #metoo. However, weak political leadership, increasing fragmentation of services, and sustained underfunding pose a threat to sexual and reproductive health globally.
An in situ hybridization approach is used to visualize mitochondrial DNA germline selection in Drosophila, revealing the role of mitochondrial fragmentation in the selection against deleterious mutations.
Genomic instability, caused by MCM mutations, results in embryonic lethality that disproportionally affects female mouse embryos and is rescued by testosterone or ibuprofen treatment, both of which ameliorate inflammatory effects.
The effect of vitamin C deprivation on mouse germline development is analysed, revealing that maternal vitamin C is required for proper DNA demethylation and the development of fetal oocytes, whereas the lack of vitamin C during pregnancy leads to reduced female fecundity in the offspring.
Hormonal contraception may alter women’s susceptibility to HIV. Here, the authors report the results of a randomized clinical trial substudy assessing the effects of injectable Net-En, oral contraceptives (COC) and Nuvaring on vaginal microbiota and cytokines, associating COC with lower microbial diversity and Nuvaring with increased inflammation.
Subfertility affects one in six couples worldwide and is associated with emotional distress and reduced quality of life. This Primer by Farquhar and colleagues discusses the causes, diagnosis and treatment of female subfertility.