Abstract

Ingestible sensors are potentially a powerful tool for monitoring human health. Sensors have been developed that can, for example, provide pH and pressure readings or monitor medication, but capsules that can provide key information about the chemical composition of the gut are still not available. Here we report a human pilot trial of an ingestible electronic capsule that can sense oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. The capsule uses a combination of thermal conductivity and semiconducting sensors, and their selectivity and sensitivity to different gases is controlled by adjusting the heating elements of the sensors. Gas profiles of the subjects were obtained while modulating gut microbial fermentative activities by altering their intake of dietary fibre. Ultrasound imaging confirmed that the oxygen-equivalent concentration profile could be used as an accurate marker for the location of the capsule. In a crossover study, variations of fibre intake were found to be associated with differing small intestinal and colonic transit times, and gut fermentation. Regional fermentation patterns could be defined via hydrogen gas profiles. Our gas capsule offers an accurate and safe tool for monitoring the effects of diet of individuals, and has the potential to be used as a diagnostic tool for the gut.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the Australian Centre for Ecogenomics for sequencing and bioinformatics advice, Queensland, Australia. The authors also thank the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia and Department of Business, Australia for the financial support of the project via a Development grant and an Acceleration Commercialisation (AC) grant, respectively.

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Affiliations

  1. School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

    • Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
    • , Kyle J. Berean
    • , Nam Ha
    • , Adam F. Chrimes
    • , Kai Xu
    • , Jian Zhen Ou
    •  & Naresh Pillai
  2. School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

    • Danilla Grando
    • , Jos L. Campbell
    •  & Robert Brkljača
  3. Department of Gastroenterology, Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

    • Kirstin M. Taylor
    • , Rebecca E. Burgell
    • , Chu K. Yao
    • , Jane G. Muir
    •  & Peter R. Gibson
  4. Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

    • Stephanie A. Ward
  5. CSIRO, Agriculture and Food, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia

    • Chris S. McSweeney

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Contributions

K.K.-Z. and P.R.G. initiated the concept. K.K.-Z., J.Z.O. and K.J.B. designed the trial. N.H. designed and fabricated the capsules with some help from A.F.C. and K.X. K.K.-Z., K.J.B., C.K.Y., D.G., J.Z.O., K.M.T., R.E.B., P.R.G. and J.G.M. organized the human trials on volunteers. D.G. and R.B. carried out the metabolomics analysis. K.K.-Z., N.P., J.Z.O. and J.L.C. conducted the in vitro tests. All authors participated in analysis of data and authorship of the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh or Peter R. Gibson.

Supplementary information

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    Supplementary Figures 1–8, Supplementary Tables 1–4, Supplementary Notes, Supplementary Methods, and Supplementary References.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-017-0004-x

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