Systemic inflammatory diseases enhance circulating oxidative stress levels, which results in the oxidation of circulating high-density lipoprotein (oxHDL). Endothelial cell function can be negatively impacted by oxHDL, but the underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. Some reports indicate that the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is also a receptor for oxHDL. However, it is unknown if oxHDL induces increased LOX-1 expression at the plasma membrane, as an event that supports endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine if oxHDL induces plasma-membrane level changes in LOX-1 and, if so, to describe the underlying mechanisms in endothelial cells. Our results demonstrate that the incubation of arterial or vein endothelial cells with oxHDL (and not HDL) induces the increase of LOX-1 expression at the plasma membrane; effect prevented by LOX-1 inhibition. Importantly, same results were observed in endothelial cells from oxHDL-treated rats. Furthermore, the observed oxHDL-induced LOX-1 expression is abolished by the down-regulation of NOX-2 expression with siRNA (and no others NOX isoforms), by the pharmacological inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase (with DPI or apocynin) or by the inhibition of NF-κB transcription factor. Coherently, LOX-1 expression is augmented by the incubation of endothelial cells with H2O2 or GSSG even in absence of oxHDL, indicating that the NOX-2/ROS/ NF-κB axis is involved. Interestingly, oxHDL incubation also increases TNF-α expression, cytokine that induces LOX-1 expression. Thus, our results suggest a positive feedback mechanism for LOX-1 receptor during inflammatory condition where an oxidative burst will generate oxHDL from native HDL, activating LOX-1 receptor which in turn will increase the expression of NOX-2, TNF-α and LOX-1 receptor at the plasma membrane. In conclusion, oxHDL-induced translocation of LOX-1 to the plasma membrane could constitute an induction mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in systemic inflammatory diseases.
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This work was supported by research grants from Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico—Fondecyt 1161288, 1160900, 11170840, and 1161646. Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy P09-016-F. The Millennium Nucleus of Ion Channels-Associated Diseases (MiNICAD) is a Millennium Nucleus supported by the Iniciativa Científica Milenio of the Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism (Chile). UNAB DI-741-15/N.
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