The mammalian gastrointestinal tract, the site of digestion and nutrient absorption, harbors trillions of beneficial commensal microbes from all three domains of life. Commensal bacteria, in particular, are key participants in the digestion of food, and are responsible for the extraction and synthesis of nutrients and other metabolites that are essential for the maintenance of mammalian health. Many of these nutrients and metabolites derived from commensal bacteria have been implicated in the development, homeostasis and function of the immune system, suggesting that commensal bacteria may influence host immunity via nutrient- and metabolite-dependent mechanisms. Here we review the current knowledge of how commensal bacteria regulate the production and bioavailability of immunomodulatory, diet-dependent nutrients and metabolites and discuss how these commensal bacteria–derived products may regulate the development and function of the mammalian immune system.
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We thank all members of the Artis laboratory for discussions and critical reading of the manuscript. Supported by US National Institutes of Health grants (AI061570, AI074878, AI083480, AI087990, AI095466, AI095608, AI097333 and AI102942 to D.A.), the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigator in Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease Award (D.A.) and the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America (D.A.). J.R.B. is supported by National Institutes of Health grant T32-AI060516.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Brestoff, J., Artis, D. Commensal bacteria at the interface of host metabolism and the immune system. Nat Immunol 14, 676–684 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.2640
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