Solar cells employing a halide perovskite with an organic cation now show power conversion efficiency of up to 22%. However, these cells are facing issues towards commercialization, such as the need to achieve long-term stability and the development of a manufacturing method for the reproducible fabrication of high-performance devices. Here, we propose a strategy to obtain stable and commercially viable perovskite solar cells. A reproducible manufacturing method is suggested, as well as routes to manage grain boundaries and interfacial charge transport. Electroluminescence is regarded as a metric to gauge theoretical efficiency. We highlight how optimizing the design of device architectures is important not only for achieving high efficiency but also for hysteresis-free and stable performance. We argue that reliable device characterization is needed to ensure the advance of this technology towards practical applications. We believe that perovskite-based devices can be competitive with silicon solar modules, and discuss issues related to the safe management of toxic material.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $4.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Miyasaka, T. Perovskite photovoltaics: rare functions of organo lead halide in solar cells and optoelectronic devices. Chem. Lett. 44, 720–729 (2015).
Kojima, A., Teshima, K., Shirai, Y. & Miyasaka, T. Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009).
Im, J.-H., Lee, C.-R., Lee, J.-W., Park, S.-W. & Park, N.-G. 6.5% efficient perovskite quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell. Nanoscale 3, 4088–4093 (2011).
Kim, H.-S. et al. Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%. Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
Lee, M. M., Teuscher, J., Miyasaka, T., Murakami, T. N. & Snaith, H. J. Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites. Science 338, 643–647 (2012).
Best research-cell efficiencies NREL (2016); www.nrel.gov/ncpv/images/efficiency_chart.jpg
Jeon, N. J. et al. Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 897–903 (2014).
Xiao, M. et al. A fast deposition-crystallization procedure for highly efficient lead iodide perovskite thin-film solar cells. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53, 9898–9903 (2014).
Li, X. et al. A vacuum flash–assisted solution process for high-efficiency large-area perovskite solar cells. Science 353, 58–62 (2016).
Ahn, N. et al. Highly reproducible perovskite solar cells with average efficiency of 18.3% and best efficiency of 19.7% fabricated via Lewis base adduct of lead(ii) iodide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 8696–8699 (2015).
Lee, J. W., Kim, H. S. & Park, N. G. Lewis acid–base adduct approach for high efficiency perovskite solar cells. Acc. Chem. Res. 49, 311–319 (2016).
Long, R., Liu, J. & Prezhdo, O. V. Unravelling the effects of grain boundary and chemical doping on electron–hole recombination in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite by time-domain atomistic simulation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 3884–3890 (2016).
deQuilettes, D. W. et al. Impact of microstructure on local carrier lifetime in perovskite solar cells. Science 8, 683–686 (2015).
Shao, Y. et al. Grain boundary dominated ion migration in polycrystalline organic–inorganic halide perovskite films. Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 1752–1759 (2016).
Son, D.-Y. et al. Self-formed grain boundary healing layer for highly efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. Nat. Energy 1, 16081 (2016).
Grätzel, M. Light and shade of perovskite solar cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 838–842 (2014).
Chen, W. et al. Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers. Science 350, 944–948 (2015).
Green, M. A., Emery, K., Hishikawa, Y., Warta, W. & Dunlo, E. D. Solar efficiency tables (version 47). Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 24, 3–11 (2016).
Noel, N. K. et al. Lead-free organic–inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications. Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 3061–3068 (2014).
Kumar, M. H. et al. Lead-free halide perovskite solar cells with high photocurrents realized through vacancy modulation. Adv. Mat. 26, 7122–7127 (2014).
Correa Baena, J. P. et al. Highly efficient planar perovskite solar cells through band alignment engineering. Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 2928–2934 (2015).
Bi, D. et al. Efficient luminescent solar cells based on tailored mixed-cation perovskites. Sci. Adv. 2, e1501170 (2016).
Tress, W. et al. Predicting the open-circuit voltage of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells using electroluminescence and photovoltaic quantum efficiency spectra: the role of radiative and non-radiative recombination. Adv. Energy Mat. 5, 1400812 (2015).
Ross, R. T. Some thermodynamics of photochemical systems. J. Chem. Phys. 46, 4590 (1967).
Kirchartz, T. et al. Reciprocity between electroluminescence and quantum efficiency used for the characterization of silicon solar cells. Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17, 394–402 (2009).
Zhao, Y. & Zhu, K. Organic–inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications. Chem. Soc. Rev. 45, 655–689 (2016).
Shao Y. et al. Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells. Nat. Commun. 5, 5784 (2014).
De Bastiani, M. et al. Ion migration and the role of preconditioning cycles in the stabilization of the J–V characteristics of inverted hybrid perovskite solar cells. Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 1501453 (2016).
Ihly, R. et al. Efficient charge extraction and slow recombination in organic–inorganic perovskites capped with semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 1439–1449 (2016).
Schulz, P. et al. Charge transfer dynamics between carbon nanotubes and hybrid organic metal halide perovskite films. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 418–425 (2016).
Sanehira, E. M. et al. The influence of electrode interfaces on the stability of perovskite solar cells: reduced degradation using MoOx / Al for hole collection. ACS Energy Lett. 1, 38–45 (2016).
Mei, A. et al. A hole-conductor-free, fully printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cell with high stability. Science 345, 295–298 (2014).
Li, X. et al. Outdoor performance and stability under elevated temperatures and long-term light soaking of triple-layer mesoporous perovskite photovoltaics. Energy Tech. 3, 551–555 (2015).
Li, X. et al. Improved performance and stability of perovskite solar cells by crystal crosslinking with alkylphosphonic acid ω-ammonium chlorides. Nat. Chem. 7, 703–711 (2015).
Qin, C., Matsushima, T., Fujihara, T, Potscavage, W. J. Jr & Adachi, C. Degradation mechanisms of solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells: thermally stimulated current measurement for analysis of carrier traps. Adv. Mater. 28, 466–471 (2016).
Berhe, T. A. et al. Organometal halide perovskite solar cells: degradation and stability. Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 323–356 (2016).
Lee, J.-W. et al. Formamidinium and cesium hybridization for photo- and moisture-stable perovskite solar cell. Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1501310 (2015).
Unger, E. L. et al. Hysteresis and transient behavior in current–voltage measurements of hybrid-perovskite absorber solar cells. Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 3690–3698 (2014).
Tress, W. et al. Understanding the rate-dependent J–V hysteresis, slow time component, and aging in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: the role of a compensated electric field. Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 995–1004 (2015).
A solar checklist. Nat. Photon. 9, 703 (2015).
Snaith, H. The perils of solar cell efficiency measurements. Nat. Photon. 6, 337–340 (2012).
Reporting standards. Nat. Nanotech. 10, 909 (2015).
Emery, K. A. et al. Methods for measuring solar cell efficiency independent of reference cell or light source. In Proc. 18th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 623–628 (IEEE, 1985).
Snaith, H. How should you measure your excitonic solar cells? Energy Environ. Sci. 12, 6513–6520 (2012).
Long, Y.-S., Hsu, S.-T. & Wu, T.-C. Induction of internal capacitance effect in performance measurement of OPV (organic photovoltaic) device by RTOSM (real-time one-sweep method). J. Energy Power Eng. 8, 1059–1066 (2014).
Babayigit, A., Ethirajan, A., Muller, M. & Conings, B. Toxicity of organometal halide perovskite solar cells. Nat. Mater. 15, 247–251 (2016).
Hailegnaw, B., Kirmayer, S., Edri, E., Hodes, G. & Cahen. D . Rain on methylammonium lead iodide based perovskites: possible environmental effects of perovskite solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 1543–1547(2015).
Wuana, R. A. & Okieimen, F. E. Heavy metals in contaminated soils: a review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. ISRN Ecol. 2011, 402647 (2011).
Sutherland, B. R. & Sargent, E. H. Perovskite photonic sources. Nat. Photon. 10, 295–302 (2016).
Yakunin, S. et al. Detection of X-ray photons by solution-processed lead halide perovskites. Nat. Photon. 9, 444–450 (2015).
Choi, J. et al. Organolead halide perovskites for low operating voltage multilevel resistive switching. Adv. Mater. 28, 6562–6567 (2016).
N.-G.P. acknowledges financial supports from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grants funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) of Korea under contracts No. NRF-2012M3A6A7054861 (Global Frontier R&D Program on Center for Multiscale Energy System), NRF-2015M1A2A2053004 (Climate Change Management Program), and NRF-2012M3A7B4049986 (Nano Material Technology Development Program). T.M. thanks Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Advanced Low Carbon Technology R&D Program (ALCA) and NEDO research projects. The NREL portion of this work was supported by the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. K.Z. acknowledges support by the hybrid perovskite solar cell program by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Solar Energy Technologies Office. M.G. acknowledges financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the NRP 70 ‘Energy Turnaround’ as well as from SNF-NanoTera and Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SYNERGY). He thanks the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) for financial support under a joint research project. He also thanks G. Rothenberger for his help with the kinetic analysis and the drawings presented in Fig. 2. M.G. acknowledges his affiliation as a visiting faculty member with Nanyang Technical University (NTU) Singapore and Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU) Seoul Korea.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Park, NG., Grätzel, M., Miyasaka, T. et al. Towards stable and commercially available perovskite solar cells. Nat Energy 1, 16152 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nenergy.2016.152
Engineering fluorinated-cation containing inverted perovskite solar cells with an efficiency of >21% and improved stability towards humidity
Nature Communications (2021)
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering (2021)
Journal of Materials Chemistry A (2021)
Science of The Total Environment (2021)
Spin–Orbit Coupling Accelerates the Photoinduced Interfacial Electron Transfer in a Fullerene-Based Perovskite Heterojunction
The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (2021)