Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that bring about the resolution of acute inflammation have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators that include the lipoxin, resolvin, protectin and maresin families, collectively called specialized pro-resolving mediators. Synthetic versions of these mediators have potent bioactions when administered in vivo. In animal experiments, the mediators evoke anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms, and enhance microbial clearance. Although they have been identified in inflammation resolution, specialized pro-resolving mediators are conserved structures that also function in host defence, pain, organ protection and tissue remodelling. This Review covers the mechanisms of specialized pro-resolving mediators and omega-3 essential fatty acid pathways that could help us to understand their physiological functions.
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The author thanks S. Orr, J. Dalli and N. Chiang for their critical reading of this manuscript and grants from the US National Institutes of Health (R01GM038765 and P01GM095467) and the Mérieux Foundation (France) for support of the author's research. I also thank our collaborators and investigators contributing to this area whose publications were not cited due to size limitations.
C.N.S. is an inventor of patents (resolvins) assigned to BWH and licensed to Resolvyx Pharmaceuticals. C.N.S. is a scientific founder of Resolvyx Pharmaceuticals and owns equity in the company. The interests of C.N.S. were reviewed and are managed by the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Partners HealthCare in accordance with their conflict of interest policies.
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Serhan, C. Pro-resolving lipid mediators are leads for resolution physiology. Nature 510, 92–101 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13479
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