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Host-directed therapy (HDT) aims to interfere with host cell factors that are required by a pathogen for replication or persistence. In this Review, Kaufmann et al. describe recent progress in the development of HDTs for the treatment of viral and bacterial infections and the challenges in bringing these approaches to the clinic.
Humanized bone-marrow-ossicle niches are formed in mice via in situ differentiation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and can be used for transplantation of normal and malignant human hematopoietic cells.
Children with severe malnutrition (which includes severe wasting and kwashiorkor)
have an elevated risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute
infectious diseases. In this Primer, the authors describe the multifactorial
aetiology of severe malnutrition and the efforts needed to meet the United
Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal of zero hunger.
Several metabolic factors affect cellular glucose metabolism as well as the innate inflammatory response. Here, the authors show that glucose metabolism regulates pro-inflammatory responses through effects on the cytosolic NADH:NAD+ ratio and the NAD(H)-sensitive transcription co-repressor CtBP.
Zika virus infection can result in congenital disorders and cause disease in adults, and there is currently no approved vaccine. Here Shan et al. show that a single dose of a live-attenuated Zika vaccine prevents infection, testis damage and transmission to the fetus during pregnancy in different animal models.
Patients who are obese and also consume excess
alcohol are at increased risk of liver-related disease.
In this Review, Parker and colleagues discuss how
alcohol and obesity affect adipose tissue function, and
describe the importance of the adipose-tissue–liver
axis in liver disease pathogenesis and outcomes.
The presence of lymph node metastases (LNM) is considered one of the most important features of colorectal cancer (CRC) staging, indicating the need for additional surgery after local excision and adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery. Now, a new study challenges the role of LNM in the progression of CRC.