Specimens of Australopithecus sediba from the site of Malapa, South Africa (dating from approximately 2 million years (Myr) ago)1 present a mix of primitive and derived traits that align the taxon with other Australopithecus species and with early Homo2. Although much of the available cranial and postcranial material of Au. sediba has been described3,4,5,6, its feeding ecology has not been investigated. Here we present results from the first extraction of plant phytoliths from dental calculus of an early hominin. We also consider stable carbon isotope and dental microwear texture data for Au. sediba in light of new palaeoenvironmental evidence. The two individuals examined consumed an almost exclusive C3 diet that probably included harder foods, and both dicotyledons (for example, tree leaves, fruits, wood and bark) and monocotyledons (for example, grasses and sedges). Like Ardipithecus ramidus (approximately 4.4 Myr ago) and modern savanna chimpanzees, Au. sediba consumed C3 foods in preference to widely available C4 resources. The inferred consumption of C3 monocotyledons, and wood or bark, increases the known variety of early hominin foods. The overall dietary pattern of these two individuals contrasts with available data for other hominins in the region and elsewhere.
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A.G.H. was funded in part by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), the Smithsonian Institution, the Malapa Project at the Institute for Human Evolution of the University of the Witwatersrand, and the Max Planck Society. P.S.U. was funded by the US Department of State Fulbright Scholarship Program, the Malapa Project and the US NSF. B.H.P. was supported by the US NSF. M.S. was funded by the US NSF, the Leakey Foundation and the University of Colorado Dean's Fund for Excellence. The phytolith reference material and processing of M.B. was funded by the Palaeontological Scientific Trust, South Africa, and the South African Department of Science and Technology. P.S. was supported by the Wenner-Gren Foundation. D.J.d.R. was funded by the Ray A. Rothrock Fellowship and the International Research Travel Assistance Grant of Texas A&M University. Extensive funding for the Malapa Project comes from the Gauteng Provincial Government, the South African Department of Science and Technology, the South Africa National Research Foundation, the University of the Witwatersrand, and many private and public donors. We thank K. Krueger for running the microwear texture data through ToothFrax and SFrax, and J. Leichliter and O. Paine for their work with the Malapa roost rodents.
This file contains Supplementary Text, Supplementary References, Supplementary Tables 1-5 and Supplementary Figures 1-6.