Renal calculi


Renal culculi are commonly known as kidney stones and consist of usually crystalline deposits that accumulate in the kidney. These deposits vary in size, and most contain calcium oxalate.


Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    The formation mechanism of abundant calcium oxalate biomaterials is unresolved. Here the authors show the early stages of calcium oxalate formation in pure and citrate-bearing solutions by using a titration set-up in conjunction with solution quenching, transmission electron microscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation.

    • Encarnación Ruiz-Agudo
    • , Alejandro Burgos-Cara
    • , Cristina Ruiz-Agudo
    • , Aurelia Ibañez-Velasco
    • , Helmut Cölfen
    •  & Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro
  • Reviews |

    Wu and Okeke review studies of the major validated scoring systems for outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy, highlighting their performance in predicting stone-free rates and complications. They discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system, provide suggestions for their applicability and propose requirements for a future unified scoring system.

    • Wayland J. Wu
    •  & Zeph Okeke
  • Reviews |

    The management of upper-tract urinary stones has dramatically changed towards an increase in the use of ureteroscopic treatment, driven by technological advances. In this Review, Weiss and Shah discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages of the two basic principles for treating stones ureteroscopically — dusting and basketing.

    • Brian Weiss
    •  & Ojas Shah
  • Reviews |

    Imaging is an important diagnostic tool and initial step in deciding which therapeutic options to use for the management of kidney stones and guidelines differ regarding the optimal initial imaging modality. In this Review, Brisbane and colleagues discuss the advantages and disadvantages of CT, ultrasonography, MRI and kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB) plain film radiography for stone imaging and propose an algorithm for imaging patients with acute stones.

    • Wayne Brisbane
    • , Michael R. Bailey
    •  & Mathew D. Sorensen
  • Reviews |

    Despite large numbers of patients being affected by stones, a surprising lack of knowledge exists on the relevance of stone compositions and pathological features to the outcomes of patients with stones. Here authors describe the potential of new technologies such as high-resolution endoscopes, and micro-CT imaging to address this lack of knowledge.

    • Michael S. Borofsky
    • , Casey A. Dauw
    • , Andrew Cohen
    • , James C. Williams Jr
    • , Andrew P. Evan
    •  & James E. Lingeman

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