Climate change

Climate change refers to a statistically defined change in the average and/or variability of the climate system, this includes the atmosphere, the water cycle, the land surface, ice and the living components of Earth. The definition does not usually require the causes of change to be attributed, for example to human activity, but there are exceptions.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Future energy demand maybe induced by climate change and subject to uncertainties arising from different extent of climate change and socioeconomic development. Here the authors follow a top-down approach and combined the recently developed socio-economic and climate scenarios and found that across 210 scenarios, moderate warming increases global climate-exposed energy demand before adaptation by 25–58% between 2010 and 2050.

    • Bas J. van Ruijven
    • , Enrica De Cian
    •  & Ian Sue Wing
  • Reviews | | open

    The microbial majority with which we share Earth often goes unnoticed despite underlying major biogeochemical cycles and food webs, thereby taking a key role in climate change. This Consensus Statement highlights the importance of climate change microbiology and issues a call to action for all microbiologists.

    • Ricardo Cavicchioli
    • , William J. Ripple
    • , Kenneth N. Timmis
    • , Farooq Azam
    • , Lars R. Bakken
    • , Matthew Baylis
    • , Michael J. Behrenfeld
    • , Antje Boetius
    • , Philip W. Boyd
    • , Aimée T. Classen
    • , Thomas W. Crowther
    • , Roberto Danovaro
    • , Christine M. Foreman
    • , Jef Huisman
    • , David A. Hutchins
    • , Janet K. Jansson
    • , David M. Karl
    • , Britt Koskella
    • , David B. Mark Welch
    • , Jennifer B. H. Martiny
    • , Mary Ann Moran
    • , Victoria J. Orphan
    • , David S. Reay
    • , Justin V. Remais
    • , Virginia I. Rich
    • , Brajesh K. Singh
    • , Lisa Y. Stein
    • , Frank J. Stewart
    • , Matthew B. Sullivan
    • , Madeleine J. H. van Oppen
    • , Scott C. Weaver
    • , Eric A. Webb
    •  & Nicole S. Webster
  • Reviews |

    Across pre-Columbian Amazonia, the relationship between cultural transitions and climatic trends is assessed.

    • Jonas Gregorio de Souza
    • , Mark Robinson
    • , S. Yoshi Maezumi
    • , José Capriles
    • , Julie A. Hoggarth
    • , Umberto Lombardo
    • , Valdir Felipe Novello
    • , James Apaéstegui
    • , Bronwen Whitney
    • , Dunia Urrego
    • , Daiana Travassos Alves
    • , Stephen Rostain
    • , Mitchell J. Power
    • , Francis E. Mayle
    • , Francisco William da Cruz Jr
    • , Henry Hooghiemstra
    •  & José Iriarte
  • Reviews |

    Top-down studies of climate change use climate projections and modelled impacts, whereas bottom-up assessments focus on the recent past and present vulnerability. This Perspective argues that these approaches must be integrated to address the needs of immediate adaptation decisions.

    • Declan Conway
    • , Robert J. Nicholls
    • , Sally Brown
    • , Mark G. L. Tebboth
    • , William Neil Adger
    • , Bashir Ahmad
    • , Hester Biemans
    • , Florence Crick
    • , Arthur F. Lutz
    • , Ricardo Safra De Campos
    • , Mohammed Said
    • , Chandni Singh
    • , Modathir Abdalla Hassan Zaroug
    • , Eva Ludi
    • , Mark New
    •  & Philippus Wester

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