Physical sciences

  • Article
    | Open Access

    While multiband superconductivity is the subject of extensive studies, the possibility of multiband charge density waves (CDW) remains elusive. Here, the authors report evidence of gap opening on both inner and outer bands by a CDW state in 2H-NbSe2, suggesting a possible multiband CDW.

    • Árpád Pásztor
    • , Alessandro Scarfato
    •  & Christoph Renner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Single molecules on metal surfaces are paradigmatic systems for the study of many-body phenomena. Here, the authors show that several spectroscopic experiments on iron phthalocyanine on Au(111) surface can be described in a unified way in terms of a strongly interacting topologically non-trivial (non-Landau) Fermi liquid.

    • R. Žitko
    • , G. G. Blesio
    •  & A. A. Aligia
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Lithium metal batteries offer high-capacity electrical energy storage but suffer from poor reversibility of the metal anode. Here, the authors report that at very high capacities, lithium deposits as dense structures with a preferred crystallite orientation, yielding highly reversible lithium anodes.

    • Qing Zhao
    • , Yue Deng
    •  & Lynden A. Archer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A space-time crystal (STC) is a nonequilibrium phase of matter displaying long-range order in both space and time. Here, the authors propose that the high-Tc cuprate superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x is a candidate of a classical discrete STC, when a parametric modulation periodic in time and uniform in space is applied.

    • Reinhold Kleiner
    • , Xianjing Zhou
    •  & Dafei Jin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The Kondo effect has been observed in a variety of systems, including carbon nanotube quantum dots and graphene in the presence of impurities. Here, the authors report the observation of the Kondo effect in bilayer graphene quantum dots and study its interplay with weak spin-orbit coupling.

    • Annika Kurzmann
    • , Yaakov Kleeorin
    •  & Klaus Ensslin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Generally, wavefronts are measured using angle-based sensors like the Shack-Hartmann sensor. Here, the authors present an angle-sensitive device that uses flat optics integrated on a focal plane array for compact wavefront sensing with improved resolution.

    • Soongyu Yi
    • , Jin Xiang
    •  & Zongfu Yu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Identifying new, active material phases provides a promising avenue in the development of efficient catalysts. Here, authors demonstrate a metastable 1T-phase IrO2 metallene oxide as an oxygen evolution electrocatalyst in acidic electrolytes.

    • Qian Dang
    • , Haiping Lin
    •  & Mingwang Shao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Active matter can spontaneously form complex patterns and assemblies via a one-way energy flow from the environment into the system. Here, the authors demonstrate that a two-way coupling, where active particles act back on the environment can give rise to novel superstructures, named as active droploids.

    • Jens Grauer
    • , Falko Schmidt
    •  & Benno Liebchen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The local variation of grain boundary atomic structure and chemistry caused by segregation of impurities influences the macroscopic properties of polycrystalline materials. Here, the effect of co-segregation of carbon and boron on the depletion of aluminum in a α − Fe grain boundary is shown.

    • A. Ahmadian
    • , D. Scheiber
    •  & G. Dehm
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Establishing the time since death (TSD) is vital in many forensic investigations. By combining thermometry, photogrammetry and numerical thermodynamic modelling, the TSD can be determined non-invasively for bodies of arbitrary shape and posture with an unprecedented accuracy of 0.26 h ± 1.38 h.

    • Leah S. Wilk
    • , Gerda J. Edelman
    •  & Maurice C. G. Aalders
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Skyrmions, a topological spin texture, have been found in a variety of magnetic systems, including quantum hall ferromagnets. Here, Yang et al demonstrate the existence of skyrmions in domain walls in a quantum Hall ferromagnet, and suggest that these skyrmions form a 1D Wigner crystal.

    • Kaifeng Yang
    • , Katsumi Nagase
    •  & Hongwu Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Molecular chaperones from the Hsp70 family can break up protein aggregates, including amyloids. Here, the authors utilize microfluidic diffusional sizing to assess the mechanism of α-synuclein (αS) disaggregation by the Hsc70–DnaJB1–Apg2 system, and show that single αS molecules are removed directly from the fibril ends.

    • Matthias M. Schneider
    • , Saurabh Gautam
    •  & Tuomas P. J. Knowles
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The band topology of nonmagnetic crystals can be characterized by Topological Quantum Chemistry (TQC), whereas the band topology of magnetic crystals remains unexplored. Here, the authors extend TQC to the magnetic space groups to form a complete, real-space theory of band topology in magnetic and nonmagnetic crystalline solids.

    • Luis Elcoro
    • , Benjamin J. Wieder
    •  & B. Andrei Bernevig
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A general theory for Floquet topology applicable to all crystalline symmetry groups is lacking. Here, the authors propose such a theory for noninteracting Floquet crystals and predict an inversion-protected Floquet higher-order topological phase with anomalous chiral hinge modes.

    • Jiabin Yu
    • , Rui-Xing Zhang
    •  & Zhi-Da Song
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Development of real-time sensing capability in artificial vision system requires an integration that allow sensing, computation, and storage, whilst remain energy efficient and compact. Here, the authors mimic the lobula giant movement detector to achieve this objective via light-mediated threshold switching memristor.

    • Yan Wang
    • , Yue Gong
    •  & Su-Ting Han
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Amides are important organic compounds that are widely applied in medicine, biochemistry, and materials science. Here, the authors report a method for synthesis of primary and secondary amides through a direct amidation of esters with sodium amidoboranes (NaNHRBH3, R = H, Me), at room temperature without the use of catalysts.

    • Yu Guo
    • , Ruo-Ya Wang
    •  & Xuenian Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Langevin dynamics describe transient behavior of many complex systems, however, inferring Langevin equations from noisy data is challenging. The authors present an inference framework for non-stationary latent Langevin dynamics and test it on models of spiking neural activity during decision making.

    • Mikhail Genkin
    • , Owen Hughes
    •  & Tatiana A. Engel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Previous work has proposed that the anomalous and topological Hall effects, associated with Weyl nodes, should have a signature in optical conductivity. Here, using THz optical spectroscopy, the authors assign these two effects to optical conductivity resonances, arising near band anti-crossings, in thin films of MnGe.

    • Y. Hayashi
    • , Y. Okamura
    •  & Y. Takahashi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Biomonitoring of sweat from fingertips overcomes current limitations in time-resolved metabolomic profiling of humans and may prove to become a powerful, noninvasive tool for precision medicine. Here, in a feasibility study of short interval sampling of sweat from fingertips, the authors assay individual dynamic metabolic patterns of endogenous and exogenous molecules.

    • Julia Brunmair
    • , Mathias Gotsmy
    •  & Christopher Gerner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The acidic tumour microenvironment in melanoma drives immune evasion by cAMP in tumor-infiltrating monocytes. Here, the authors show that the release of an adenylate cyclase inhibitor from micelles restores antitumor immunity and, when combined with regulatory T cell depletion, leads to remission of established B16-F10-OVA tumors.

    • Kerstin Johann
    • , Toszka Bohn
    •  & Christian Becker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Experimental determination of new cocrystals remains challenging due to the need of a systematic screening with a large range of coformers. Here the authors develop a flexible deep learning framework based on graph neural network demonstrated to quickly predict the formation of co-crystals.

    • Yuanyuan Jiang
    • , Zongwei Yang
    •  & Xuemei Pu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There is an urgent need of cleaner and energy-efficient technologies for future sustainable chemicals and fuels. Here the authors report the gas phase synthesis of long hydrocarbon chains from atomic carbon and molecular hydrogen precursors in an inert carrier gas, avoiding the use of metal catalysts.

    • Lidia Martínez
    • , Pablo Merino
    •  & José A. Martín-Gago
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many useful chemical scaffolds include carbon or nitrogen substitutions at two or three atoms away from benzene. Here, the authors show a unified hydroalkylation and hydroaminoalkylation protocol to access these structures via a regioselective photocatalytic addition to simple styrenes.

    • Zhao Wu
    • , Samuel N. Gockel
    •  & Kami L. Hull
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mechanical metamaterials can be engineered with properties not possible in ordinary materials. Here the authors demonstrate and study an active metamaterial with self-sensing characteristics that enables odd elastic properties not observed in passive media.

    • Yangyang Chen
    • , Xiaopeng Li
    •  & Guoliang Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Microswimmers can navigate porous environments, however the impact of their directed motility on their movement in fluid flow remains an open issue. The authors show that the motility of magnetotactic bacteria in flow through a porous constriction gives rise to nonlinear flow conductivity similar to electrical diodes.

    • Nicolas Waisbord
    • , Amin Dehkharghani
    •  & Jeffrey S. Guasto
  • Article
    | Open Access

    An enhanced superconducting pairing temperature (Tg) has only been observed in single-layer FeSe interfaced with TiOx system. Here, the authors construct a new interface composed of single-layer FeSe interfaced with LaFeO3 showing a highest Tg of 80 K among all-known interfacial superconductors.

    • Yuanhe Song
    • , Zheng Chen
    •  & Donglai Feng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Rapid, easy and effective haemostasis is needed to reduce the loss of life from traumatic haemorrhage. Here, the authors report on the creation of polymer-nanoclay electrospun membranes and demonstrate haemostatic effects showing superior effects to other clay based haemostats.

    • Yan Cui
    • , Zongwang Huang
    •  & Yi Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Molecular orientation is often ignored during single-molecule localisation microscopy. Here, the authors use a Vortex point spread function in order to simultaneously estimate the 3D position, dipole orientation and degree of rotational constraint, within 30% of the Cramér-Rao bound limit.

    • Christiaan N. Hulleman
    • , Rasmus Ø. Thorsen
    •  & Bernd Rieger
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sintering of supported transition metal catalysts is problematic for high-temperature catalysis. Here the authors report entropy-driven, self-regeneration of high entropy oxide nanoparticles, promoting better stability and in situ reversible exsolution-dissolution process in multi-redox cycles.

    • Shengtai Hou
    • , Xuefeng Ma
    •  & Sheng Dai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Spatial light modulators (SLM) provide tailored light fields for many applications. Here, the authors present an SLM device based on an organic electro-optic material that manipulates the properties of individual pixels by electronic signals at speeds up to 50 MHz.

    • Ileana-Cristina Benea-Chelmus
    • , Maryna L. Meretska
    •  & Federico Capasso
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Quasicrystals exhibit long-range order without periodicity. The authors report an approach for quasicrystal fabrication and show through in situ imaging and corresponding simulations the formation of a single decagonal quasicrystal arising from coalescence of multiple quasicrystals in a liquid.

    • Insung Han
    • , Kelly L. Wang
    •  & Ashwin J. Shahani
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Reliable and fast active reset protocols are key to the functioning of quantum computing systems. Here, the authors use parametric driving to swap an excitation from a transmon qubit to its readout resonator within 34 ns, with negligible effects on neighboring qubits.

    • Yu Zhou
    • , Zhenxing Zhang
    •  & Shengyu Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The effectiveness of digital contact tracing for COVID-19 control remains uncertain. Here, the authors use data from the Smittestopp app, used in Norway in spring 2020, and estimate that 80% of nearby devices were detected by the app, and at least 11% of close contacts were not visible to manual contact tracing.

    • Ahmed Elmokashfi
    • , Joakim Sundnes
    •  & Olav Lysne
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Iron-sulfur (FeS) proteins are involved in electron transfer and CO2 fixation. Here, the authors show that FeS clusters can form spontaneously in the presence of the amino acid cysteine, in conditions similar those expected in Hadean alkaline hydrothermal vents, suggesting a plausible mechanism of their emergence at the origin of life.

    • Sean F. Jordan
    • , Ioannis Ioannou
    •  & Nick Lane