Nutrition disorders

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Malnourished children experience a high burden of intestinal pathogens that exacerbate growth stunting, and preventing this pathogen overgrowth has proved challenging. Here the authors show that diet-specific bacterial crossfeeding contributes to the overgrowth of intestinal pathogens during child malnutrition.

    • K. E. Huus
    • , T. T. Hoang
    •  & B. B. Finlay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Vitamin A, of which retinol is the major form in the circulation, is a determinant of human health but whether vitamin A status is associated with mortality is not well understood. Here the authors report that in a prospective observational analysis of 29 104 men, higher serum retinol associates with lower risk of overall and cause-specific mortality.

    • Jiaqi Huang
    • , Stephanie J. Weinstein
    •  & Demetrius Albanes
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Higher intake of dietary fiber and whole grains are associated with reduced risk of various diseases including some cancers. Here, the authors estimate reductions in liver cancer of 22% and 31% and chronic liver disease mortality of 56% and 63% associated with increased whole grain and dietary fiber intake, respectively.

    • Xing Liu
    • , Wanshui Yang
    •  & Xuehong Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Iron is essential during pregnancy for embryo and placental development and maternal health. However, in this study using mouse models, the authors demonstrate that excess maternal iron causes adverse embryo outcomes in pregnancies with underlying systemic inflammation.

    • Allison L. Fisher
    • , Veena Sangkhae
    •  & Elizabeta Nemeth
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Blood circulating proteins reflect biological processes, thus providing insight into complex traits. Here the authors study the relationship between 1000 plasma proteins and body mass index (BMI), highlighting widespread proteome changes and causal relationships between BMI and specific proteins.

    • Shaza B. Zaghlool
    • , Sapna Sharma
    •  & Karsten Suhre
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dietary changes can impact the microbial constitution of the gastrointestinal tract and modulate the local immune response. Here, the authors show supplementation using lysates of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath result in changes to the microbiota, modulate Treg populations and metabolic read outs in a dietary control murine model.

    • Benjamin A. H. Jensen
    • , Jacob B. Holm
    •  & Tor E. Lea
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Western diet is one of the major causes underlying diabetes, and the microbes residing in the gut playing a critical role in mediating the effects of diet. Here the authors utilize network analysis to discover two species of Lactobacilli decreased by western diet, which improve glucose metabolism and restore of hepatic mitochondria in mice.

    • Richard R. Rodrigues
    • , Manoj Gurung
    •  & Natalia Shulzhenko
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) is increasing rapidly across Africa. Here, the authors investigate autozygosity in CMD-associated traits in over 10,000 sub-Saharan African individuals, showing these traits are influenced by sex-specific inbreeding depression and environmental interactions.

    • Francisco C. Ceballos
    • , Scott Hazelhurst
    •  & Michèle Ramsay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The edematous form of severe acute childhood malnutrition (ESAM) presents with more severe multi-organ dysfunction than non-edematous SAM (NESAM). Here the authors assess genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal cells of SAM children and find that ESAM is characterized by hypomethylation at genes associated with disorders of nutrition and metabolism, including fatty liver and diabetes.

    • Katharina V. Schulze
    • , Shanker Swaminathan
    •  & Neil A. Hanchard
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is a regulator of lipid homeostasis in several tissues, however, its role in intestinal lipid metabolism was not yet known. Here the authors study intestine specific HDAC3 knock out mice and report that these animals have increased fatty acid oxidation and undergo remodeling of the intestinal epithelial cell lipidome.

    • Mercedes Dávalos-Salas
    • , Magdalene K. Montgomery
    •  & John M. Mariadason
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Animal studies have shown that the nutritional status of parents can predispose the offspring to obesity and obesity-related diseases. Here the authors show that cardiac dysfunction induced by a high-fat diet persists for two generations in Drosophila, and that targeted expression of ATGL/bmm in the offspring, as well as inhibition of H3K27 trimethylation, is cardioprotective.

    • Maria Clara Guida
    • , Ryan Tyge Birse
    •  & Rolf Bodmer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Humans increasingly depend on seafood for nutrition, but nutrient content is unknown for the vast majority of fish species. Here, the authors use phylogenetic analyses and data imputation to predict the nutrient content of fish that are under-studied but that could be of future dietary importance.

    • Bapu Vaitla
    • , David Collar
    •  & Christopher D. Golden
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Although many genetic variants are known for obesity, their function remains largely unknown. Here, in a weight-loss intervention cohort, the authors identify protein quantitative trait loci associated with BMI at baseline and after weight loss and find FAM46A to be a regulator of leptin in adipocytes.

    • Jérôme Carayol
    • , Christian Chabert
    •  & Jörg Hager
  • Article
    | Open Access

    MANF is a neurotrophic factor that is secreted but also mediates the unfolded protein response acting intracellularly. Here, the authors show that MANF expression in the brain is influenced by nutritional cues, and hypothalamic MANF influences food intake and systemic energy homeostasis.

    • Su Yang
    • , Huiming Yang
    •  & Xiao-Jiang Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Adipose tissue contains macrophages that can influence both local and systemic metabolism via the secretion of cytokines. Here, Nawaz et al. report that M2-like macrophages, present in adipose tissue, create a microenvironment that inhibits proliferation of adipocyte progenitors due to the secretion of TGF-β1

    • Allah Nawaz
    • , Aminuddin Aminuddin
    •  & Kazuyuki Tobe
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Environmental enteropathy is a disorder of the small intestine that contributes to the persistence of childhood malnutrition worldwide. Here, Brownet al. show in mice that early-life malnourishment, in combination with exposure to commensal bacteria, remodels the small intestine to resemble features of the disease.

    • Eric M. Brown
    • , Marta Wlodarska
    •  & B. Brett Finlay
  • Article |

    Berberine is contained in some plant-derived medicines and is known to have anti-diabetic effects. Here the authors show that berberine activates thermogenesis in white and brown adipose tissues, thereby increasing organismal energy expenditure and limiting weight gain in genetically obese mice.

    • Zhiguo Zhang
    • , Huizhi Zhang
    •  & Guang Ning