Articles in 2020

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  • Ecotopic expression of three transcription factors induces reprogramming of the DNA methylation pattern of aged or injured retinal ganglion cells to a more ‘youthful’ state.

    • Natasha Bray
    Research Highlight
  • Downward homeostatic regulation of neuronal firing rate in the visual cortex occurs via synaptic scaling and is enabled by sleep.

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight
  • Local mRNA translation is essential for the function of polarized cells, such as neurons. Twiss and colleagues provide an overview of the cellular mechanisms that coordinate the transport and translation of axonal mRNAs, allowing the axon to respond to changing physiological demands.

    • Irene Dalla Costa
    • Courtney N. Buchanan
    • Jeffery L. Twiss
    Review Article
  • In marmosets, overactivation of area 25 of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex alters neural and cardiac activity and behaviour in response to threat.

    • Darran Yates
    Research Highlight
  • The formation of the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons involves a specific clustering of ion channels. In this Review, Rasband and Peles describe two independent, glia-directed mechanisms that converge on the axonal cytoskeleton to cluster and maintain nodal ion channels.

    • Matthew N. Rasband
    • Elior Peles
    Review Article
  • Optogenetic stimulation of place cells alters memory-guided spatial navigation in mice, providing evidence for a causal role for these cells in spatial cognition.

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight
  • The cerebellum has an established role in procedural learning; however, the mechanisms through which it mediates learning are less well understood. De Zeeuw describes evidence for the existence of ‘upbound’ and ‘downbound’ microzones of cerebellar Purkinje cells and considers how they contribute to different forms of cerebellar learning.

    • Chris I. De Zeeuw
    Review Article
  • Deep neural networks may offer theories of perception, cognition and action for biological brains. Here, Saxe, Nelli and Summerfield offer a road map of how neuroscientists can use deep networks to model and understand biological brains.

    • Andrew Saxe
    • Stephanie Nelli
    • Christopher Summerfield
  • Stroke initially causes cell injury and death. After these acute events, there is a period of increased plasticity in the brain. Joy and Carmichael review changes in neuronal excitability systems during this period that lead to neural circuit reformation after stroke and how they may be targeted to promote functional recovery.

    • Mary T. Joy
    • S. Thomas Carmichael
    Review Article
  • Inhibitory stabilization is a network mechanism that can enable high-gain excitatory networks to operate without leading to runaway activity. Here Sadeh and Clopath review the evidence for inhibition-stabilized networks in the brain and discuss their implications for cortical computation.

    • Sadra Sadeh
    • Claudia Clopath
    Review Article
  • Traditional scientific conferences and seminar events have been hugely disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, paving the way for virtual forms of scientific communication to take hold and be put to the test.

    • Panos A. Bozelos
    • Tim P. Vogels