Volume 12 Issue 7, July 2015

Volume 12 Issue 7

Cover image supplied by H. Plovier and P. D. Cani, WELBIO (Walloon Excellence in Life sciences and BIOtechnology), Louvain Drug Research Institue, Metabolism and Nutrition research group, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium. Founded by an ERC Starting Grant 336452-ENIGMO.Immunofluorescence image of enteroendocrine L cells in the epithelium and gut bacteria in the luminal content of the mouse proximal colon. Tissue was stained to show L cells (mouse anti-GLP1) and intermediary filaments of the colonic epithelium (rabbit anti-cytokeratin 8). Nuclei were stained by Hoechst 33342. Gut microbes present in the colonic content can be seen thanks to aspecific staining.

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to TNF are being developed that are highly similar, but not identical to the innovator molecules. CT-P13, a biosimilar of infliximab, is the first anti-TNF mAb to get approval in South Korea, Europe and Canada. However, uncertainties remain about indication extrapolation and interchangeability.

    • Niels Vande Casteele
    •  & William J. Sandborn
  • News & Views |

    The impact of chronic nausea and vomiting on quality of life and economic burden are substantial. New findings show that interstitial cells of Cajal are depleted or have ultrastructural changes in patients with chronic nausea and vomiting who have normal gastric emptying. Abnormalities of the gastric slow waves were also observed.

    • Mohammad Bashashati
    •  & Richard W. McCallum
  • News & Views |

    Current treatments efficiently control chronic HBV infection but they do not lead to its elimination. Now, Ebert and colleagues have shown that cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) prevent TNF-mediated killing of infected hepatocytes and that cIAP antagonists might lead to HBV cure by promoting death of infected cells.

    • Julie Lucifora
    •  & Christian Trepo

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune or antigen-mediated disease. Distinguishing GERD from EoE can be challenging. Controversy exists regarding the clinical interpretation of PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia. This Review describes the current understanding on the complex interplay between GERD and EoE.

    • Leila Kia
    •  & Ikuo Hirano
  • Review Article |

    In liver diseases, inflammasome activation is a major contributor to hepatocyte damage, immune cell activation and amplification of inflammation. This Review provides a detailed account of the different types of inflammasomes that are involved, their activation and biological functions in the context of liver injury and disease progression.

    • Gyongyi Szabo
    •  & Jan Petrasek
  • Review Article |

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) arises from precursor lesions that, contrary to a long-standing belief, are not always adenomas. In particular, the serrated neoplasia pathway is attracting more and more attention as an alternative route to CRC development. This Review provides a current perspective on the serrated neoplasia pathway, combining detailed descriptions of its characteristics and biological mechanisms with clinical observations.

    • Joep E. G. IJspeert
    • , Louis Vermeulen
    • , Gerrit A. Meijer
    •  & Evelien Dekker
  • Review Article |

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a novel treatment for achalasia and other spastic oesophageal motility disorders. Although technically demanding, this technique compares favourably with other therapeutic approaches such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy and pneumatic dilation. In this Review the authors describe the technique, the indications and contraindications, safety and efficacy of POEM.

    • Robert Bechara
    • , Haruo Ikeda
    •  & Haruhiro Inoue