Volume 18 Issue 2, February 2017

Volume 18 Issue 2

The nervous and immune systems communicate and reciprocally influence their functional responses. This month's joint focus presents review articles that examine how the nervous system and immune cells interact during development, homeostasis and in pathogenic disease states. http://www.nature.com/focus/neuroimmune_communication/index.html Artwork by Lewis Long.

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    We present a special set of Review articles on neuroimmune communication that highlight how the immune system and nervous system are anatomically connected, mechanistically communicate and reciprocally influence the other's function.

Reviews

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    The identification of VGLL3 as a transcription (co-)factor that underlies the sex bias of the human immune system further underscores the relevance of research into this area.

    • Aridaman Pandit
    • , Linde Meyaard
    •  & Timothy R D J Radstake
  • News & Views |

    Regulatory T cells develop in the thymus as a distinct lineage of T cells instructed by the lineage-specifying transcription factor Foxp3. Epigenetic imprinting by the genome organizer Satb1 precedes this cell-fate 'decision' during thymocyte development.

    • Marc Beyer
    •  & Jochen Huehn
  • News & Views |

    Increased expression of the ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 in hematopoietic stem cells promotes activity of the GTP-binding protein Cdc42 and consequent diminished function of hematopoietic stem cells by ubiquitination of the RNA-binding protein hnRNP-A1, which leads to an inability to properly process pre-mRNA encoding Cdc42-inhibitory GTPase-activating proteins.

    • Martin Turner
    •  & Elisa Monzón-Casanova
  • News & Views |

    The epigenetic regulation of gene expression by the histone demethylase UTX is central to the development of invariant natural killer cells.

    • S Harsha Krovi
    •  & Laurent Gapin

Research Highlights

Articles

  • Article |

    Various autoimmune diseases have sex-linked biases. Gudjonsson and colleagues find that the transcription factor VGLL3 is associated with a female-biased molecular signature linked to susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

    • Yun Liang
    • , Lam C Tsoi
    • , Xianying Xing
    • , Maria A Beamer
    • , William R Swindell
    • , Mrinal K Sarkar
    • , Celine C Berthier
    • , Philip E Stuart
    • , Paul W Harms
    • , Rajan P Nair
    • , James T Elder
    • , John J Voorhees
    • , J Michelle Kahlenberg
    •  & Johann E Gudjonsson
  • Article |

    Abramson and colleagues show that the coordinated action of several transcriptional regulators, including Irf4, Irf8, Tbx21, Tcf7 and Ctcfl, acts on medullary-thymic-epithelial-cell-specific accessible regions in the locus encoding the transcriptional regulator Aire to control its expression.

    • Yonatan Herzig
    • , Shir Nevo
    • , Chamutal Bornstein
    • , Miriam R Brezis
    • , Sharon Ben-Hur
    • , Aya Shkedy
    • , Michal Eisenberg-Bord
    • , Ben Levi
    • , Michael Delacher
    • , Yael Goldfarb
    • , Eyal David
    • , Leehee Weinberger
    • , Sergey Viukov
    • , Shifra Ben-Dor
    • , Matthieu Giraud
    • , Jacob H Hanna
    • , Achim Breiling
    • , Frank Lyko
    • , Ido Amit
    • , Markus Feuerer
    •  & Jakub Abramson
  • Article |

    Thymic regulatory T (Treg) precursors undergo a distinct developmental pathway. Sakaguchi and colleagues show the chromatin organizer Satb1 is required for establishing the super-enhancer chromatin landscape of Treg cell–specific signature genes before Foxp3 expression.

    • Yohko Kitagawa
    • , Naganari Ohkura
    • , Yujiro Kidani
    • , Alexis Vandenbon
    • , Keiji Hirota
    • , Ryoji Kawakami
    • , Keiko Yasuda
    • , Daisuke Motooka
    • , Shota Nakamura
    • , Motonari Kondo
    • , Ichiro Taniuchi
    • , Terumi Kohwi-Shigematsu
    •  & Shimon Sakaguchi
  • Article |

    Natural killer T cells in the thymus are CD1d-restricted cells that are selected at the CD4+CD8+ double-positive stage and require a variety of transcription factors for their development. Orkin, Winau and colleagues show that the histone demethylase UTX serves an essential role in the transcriptional control of the thymic maturation of these cells through multiple epigenetic mechanisms.

    • Semir Beyaz
    • , Ji Hyung Kim
    • , Luca Pinello
    • , Michael E Xifaras
    • , Yu Hu
    • , Jialiang Huang
    • , Marc A Kerenyi
    • , Partha P Das
    • , R Anthony Barnitz
    • , Aurelie Herault
    • , Rizkullah Dogum
    • , W Nicholas Haining
    • , Ömer H Yilmaz
    • , Emmanuelle Passegue
    • , Guo-Cheng Yuan
    • , Stuart H Orkin
    •  & Florian Winau
  • Article |

    The phosphatase calcineurin targets NFAT transcription factors in T cells. Ashwell and colleagues show that calcineurin is recruited to the TCR signaling complex, where it reverses the inhibitory phosphorylation of the kinase Lck.

    • Debjani Dutta
    • , Valarie A Barr
    • , Itoro Akpan
    • , Paul R Mittelstadt
    • , Laishram I Singha
    • , Lawrence E Samelson
    •  & Jonathan D Ashwell
  • Article |

    Cornall and colleagues show that Themis2 interacts with the phospholipase PLC-γ2 and lowers the threshold for B cell activation by low but not high avidity antigens.

    • Daian Cheng
    • , Mukta Deobagkar-Lele
    • , Ekaterina Zvezdova
    • , Seeyoung Choi
    • , Shoji Uehara
    • , Delphine Baup
    • , Sophia C Bennett
    • , Katherine R Bull
    • , Tanya L Crockford
    • , Helen Ferry
    • , Claude Warzecha
    • , Marlène Marcellin
    • , Anne Gonzalez de Peredo
    • , Renaud Lesourne
    • , Consuelo Anzilotti
    • , Paul E Love
    •  & Richard J Cornall
  • Article |

    Sensors of RNA viruses trigger prion-like aggregation of the adaptor MAVS, which leads to antiviral responses. Gao and colleagues show that the E3 ligase TRIM31 positively regulates this process by K63-linked polyubiquitination of MAVS.

    • Bingyu Liu
    • , Meng Zhang
    • , Honglei Chu
    • , Honghai Zhang
    • , Haifeng Wu
    • , Guanhua Song
    • , Peng Wang
    • , Kai Zhao
    • , Jinxiu Hou
    • , Xueer Wang
    • , Lei Zhang
    •  & Chengjiang Gao
  • Article |

    Gringhuis, Geijtenbeek and colleagues show that the RNA helicase DDX3 binds abortive HIV-1 RNA and induces type I interferon in dendritic cells, a process that is inhibited by the HIV-1-induced activation of kinase PLK1.

    • Sonja I Gringhuis
    • , Nina Hertoghs
    • , Tanja M Kaptein
    • , Esther M Zijlstra-Willems
    • , Ramin Sarrami-Forooshani
    • , Joris K Sprokholt
    • , Nienke H van Teijlingen
    • , Neeltje A Kootstra
    • , Thijs Booiman
    • , Karel A van Dort
    • , Carla M S Ribeiro
    • , Agata Drewniak
    •  & Teunis B H Geijtenbeek
  • Article |

    Starczynowski and colleagues show that overexpression of TRAF6 in HSCs induces ubiquitination of the RNA-binding protein hnRNPA1 and alternative splicing of Arhgap1, which accounts for the hematopoietic defects in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    • Jing Fang
    • , Lyndsey C Bolanos
    • , Kwangmin Choi
    • , Xiaona Liu
    • , Susanne Christie
    • , Shailaja Akunuru
    • , Rupali Kumar
    • , Dehua Wang
    • , Xiaoting Chen
    • , Kenneth D Greis
    • , Peter Stoilov
    • , Marie-Dominique Filippi
    • , Jaroslaw P Maciejewski
    • , Guillermo Garcia-Manero
    • , Matthew T Weirauch
    • , Nathan Salomonis
    • , Hartmut Geiger
    • , Yi Zheng
    •  & Daniel T Starczynowski

Corrigenda

Errata