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  • Ulrich von Andrian recounts how an unexpected experimental result called into question a well-established concept in immunology: the mechanism of immune memory. Follow-up experiments revealed that NK cells can mediate antigen-specific adaptive immune responses.

    • Ulrich H. von Andrian
  • New Zealand has avoided the major health impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic due to a strict country-wide lockdown, the end-goal of which was elimination rather than mitigation and suppression. The New Zealand government’s use of scientific expertise, spanning public health, infectious diseases, genomics, modeling and immunology, has been one of the keys to the success of its SARS-CoV-2 elimination and control strategy.

    • Jemma L. Geoghegan
    • Nicole J. Moreland
    • James E. Ussher
  • From the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and following the creation of the ‘Coronavirus Unit’, Argentinean scientists and technologists have contributed by leading basic and translational research initiatives, including developing diagnostic and serological kits, designing new therapeutic approaches, establishing epidemiological platforms, executing clinical trials and implementing social measures to protect the most vulnerable groups of the population.

    • Gabriel A. Rabinovich
    • Jorge Geffner
  • The similarities and differences between trained immunity and other immune processes are the subject of intense interrogation. Therefore, a consensus on the definition of trained immunity in both in vitro and in vivo settings, as well as in experimental models and human subjects, is necessary for advancing this field of research. Here we aim to establish a common framework that describes the experimental standards for defining trained immunity.

    • Maziar Divangahi
    • Peter Aaby
    • Mihai G. Netea
  • Anjana Rao describes the team effort to define the changes in chromatin accessibility in naive T cells during TH1 and TH2 cell differentiation after stimulation with TCR ligands and the appropriate cytokines. Her lab showed that differentiated TH1 and TH2 cells, which produce the cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4, respectively, displayed distinct patterns of DNase I hypersensitivity, histone acetylation and NFAT1 transcription factor binding around the Ifng and Il4 genes. This project turned them into a ‘real’ immunology lab!

    • Anjana Rao
  • In October 2005, we, alongside the laboratory of Casey Weaver, identified a third type of helper T cells that produce the cytokine IL-17, important for the regulation of tissue inflammation.

    • Chen Dong
  • Laurie Glimcher and colleagues recount their work that showed how the transcription factor XBP1 and the UPR signaling pathway are interconnected during plasma cell differentiation.

    • Laurie H. Glimcher
    • Ann-Hwee Lee
    • Neal N. Iwakoshi
  • Paola Ricciardi-Castagnoli describes how her groups’ focus on mucosal immunity led to the discovery of how dendritic cells sense the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis.

    • Paola Ricciardi-Castagnoli
  • Takashi Fujita’s discovery of RNA helicases as intracellular viral replication sensors illustrates how scientific knowledge develops in logical — and sometimes illogical — ways.

    • Takashi Fujita
  • Nature Immunology’s 20th anniversary is a good opportunity to reminisce about the ImmGen collective endeavor — its goals, successes and horror stories — and the group’s exploration of various modes of scientific publishing.

    • Stephanie Vargas Aguilar
    • Oscar Aguilar
    • Caroline Ziemkiewicz
  • Immunologists used to avoid metabolism, but that is no longer possible. Now that we must talk about it, how can we do so in a way that enhances and clarifies our understanding of the role metabolism plays in the immune response?

    • Michael P. Murphy
    • Luke A. J. O’Neill
  • Climate change can trigger a sequence of events of significant magnitude with consequences for waterborne diseases. Heavy rainfall, flooding and hot weather are associated with waterborne diseases, but early warning systems could intercept these cascading risks.

    • Jan C. Semenza