Volume 8 Issue 5, May 2012

Volume 8 Issue 5

Bacteria use indole as a community signal to convert to a persistent state associated with antibiotic tolerance as well as chronic and recurrent infection. This image shows a cartoon of bacterial communication, including the emission and detection of indole in the surroundings. Cover art by Erin Dewalt, based on an image from Katie M. Flynn and Ahmad S. Khalil. Brief Communication, p431

Editorials

  • Editorial |

    Funding organizations need to support young investigators to ensure the future of interdisciplinary research.

  • Editorial |

    Social media offer rapid and informal mechanisms to exchange ideas and build ties within the community.

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) is often mutated in humans suffering from autoimmune diseases. A recent study proposes a mechanism by which LYP can cause these diseases and suggests that drugs against LYP could be a useful treatment.

    • Ming-Chao Zhong
    •  & André Veillette
  • News & Views |

    RNA molecules have diverse functional roles, including silencing genes, catalyzing biochemical reactions and sensing chemicals that control gene expression. Biologists have drawn from nature's toolbox to construct engineered RNA molecules with versatile capabilities and can now begin to automate the design of libraries of regulatory RNAs.

    • Farren J Isaacs
  • News & Views |

    Sensing of the plant hormone auxin involves formation of a co-receptor complex consisting of an F-box protein and an AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) transcriptional repressor. Distinct co-receptor combinations might provide cells with an unexpectedly broad range of auxin-sensing capacities and contribute to diverse transcriptional programs activated by different auxin levels in various developmental contexts.

    • Steffen Vanneste
    •  & Jiří Friml

Review

  • Review Article |

    Chromatin structure and its modulation by epigenetic mechanisms represent a complex system that regulates gene expression in cells. Chemical biology approaches, including chemical probes, designer chromatin and molecular-level analysis of chromatin states, offer powerful mechanistic tools for understanding and manipulating chromatin at all levels of cellular organization.

    • Beat Fierz
    •  & Tom W Muir

Brief Communications

  • Brief Communication |

    Searching chemical space for biologically active molecules requires facile access to new molecular architectures. Variations in reagent, catalyst and reaction order create a programmable one-pot method that yields single stereoisomers of complex cycloadducts, including either isomer of enantiomeric pairs.

    • Marco Potowski
    • , Markus Schürmann
    • , Hans Preut
    • , Andrey P Antonchick
    •  & Herbert Waldmann
  • Brief Communication |

    Indole, secreted by E. coli, induces oxidative-stress and phage-shock pathway genes to increase persistence, a phenomenon in which dormant bacteria are resistant to antibiotics.

    • Nicole M Vega
    • , Kyle R Allison
    • , Ahmad S Khalil
    •  & James J Collins
  • Brief Communication |

    N-linked glycoprotein production requires attachment of eukaryotic glycans to eukaryotic proteins. The introduction of four eukaryotic glycosyltransferases and a bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase now allows E. coli to produce and transfer a five-glycan Man3GlcNAc2 eukaryotic core structure to several protein targets.

    • Juan D Valderrama-Rincon
    • , Adam C Fisher
    • , Judith H Merritt
    • , Yao-Yun Fan
    • , Craig A Reading
    • , Krishan Chhiba
    • , Christian Heiss
    • , Parastoo Azadi
    • , Markus Aebi
    •  & Matthew P DeLisa

Articles

  • Article |

    The protein phosphatase LYP is known to regulate signaling in the immune system, but the regulatory mechanisms controlling LYP itself are less clear. Exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics and application of a newly identified chemical inhibitor now define a role for the kinase CSK in dialing down LYP activity.

    • Torkel Vang
    • , Wallace H Liu
    • , Laurence Delacroix
    • , Shuangding Wu
    • , Stefan Vasile
    • , Russell Dahl
    • , Li Yang
    • , Lucia Musumeci
    • , Dana Francis
    • , Johannes Landskron
    • , Kjetil Tasken
    • , Michel L Tremblay
    • , Benedicte A Lie
    • , Rebecca Page
    • , Tomas Mustelin
    • , Souad Rahmouni
    • , Robert C Rickert
    •  & Lutz Tautz
  • Article |

    Antisense RNA sequences are attractive 'parts' for use as regulatory devices in synthetic biology applications. Synthesis and testing of an RNA library specific to the translation initiation region now allows analysis and forward design of these sequences, leading to a family of mutually orthogonal regulators.

    • Vivek K Mutalik
    • , Lei Qi
    • , Joao C Guimaraes
    • , Julius B Lucks
    •  & Adam P Arkin
  • Article |

    Diazepam-bound GABAA receptor models used for virtual screening lead to discovery of new ligands that modulate GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes via their benzodiazepine binding site.

    • Lars Richter
    • , Chris de Graaf
    • , Werner Sieghart
    • , Zdravko Varagic
    • , Martina Mörzinger
    • , Iwan J P de Esch
    • , Gerhard F Ecker
    •  & Margot Ernst
  • Article |

    Chemically inducible protein dimerization serves as a useful tool to investigate biological systems and construct synthetic circuits. Optimization of a protein-protein interaction dependent on the plant hormone gibberellin yields a portable dimerization system that can be combined with rapamycin to assemble logic gates.

    • Takafumi Miyamoto
    • , Robert DeRose
    • , Allison Suarez
    • , Tasuku Ueno
    • , Melinda Chen
    • , Tai-ping Sun
    • , Michael J Wolfgang
    • , Chandrani Mukherjee
    • , David J Meyers
    •  & Takanari Inoue
  • Article |

    A covalent inhibitor based on an electron-deficient olefin scaffold reversibly and selectively inhibits the p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase RSK.

    • Iana M Serafimova
    • , Miles A Pufall
    • , Shyam Krishnan
    • , Katarzyna Duda
    • , Michael S Cohen
    • , Rebecca L Maglathlin
    • , Jesse M McFarland
    • , Rand M Miller
    • , Morten Frödin
    •  & Jack Taunton
  • Article |

    Auxin is perceived by a co-receptor complex that contains a TIR1 F-box protein and an Aux/IAA transcriptional repressor. The combinatorial diversity of auxin co-receptor complexes and their distinct spectra of affinities offer a means to tune plant cell sensitivity to a wide range of auxin concentrations.

    • Luz Irina A Calderón Villalobos
    • , Sarah Lee
    • , Cesar De Oliveira
    • , Anthony Ivetac
    • , Wolfgang Brandt
    • , Lynne Armitage
    • , Laura B Sheard
    • , Xu Tan
    • , Geraint Parry
    • , Haibin Mao
    • , Ning Zheng
    • , Richard Napier
    • , Stefan Kepinski
    •  & Mark Estelle
  • Article |

    The diperpenoid adenanthin covalently modifies the resolving cysteine from peroxiredoxins to inhibit the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, a second messenger in cells, and thereby activates pathways that promote the differentiation of leukemia cells.

    • Chuan-Xu Liu
    • , Qian-Qian Yin
    • , Hu-Chen Zhou
    • , Ying-Li Wu
    • , Jian-Xin Pu
    • , Li Xia
    • , Wei Liu
    • , Xin Huang
    • , Tao Jiang
    • , Ming-Xuan Wu
    • , Li-Cai He
    • , Ya-Xue Zhao
    • , Xiao-Lin Wang
    • , Wei-Lie Xiao
    • , Hong-Zhuan Chen
    • , Qian Zhao
    • , Ai-Wu Zhou
    • , Li-Shun Wang
    • , Han-Dong Sun
    •  & Guo-Qiang Chen