Volume 569 Issue 7756, 16 May 2019

Tree dimensions

Root-associated microbial symbionts have a strong influence over the way forest ecosystems function. The identity of the symbionts can help determine how easily trees access nutrients, sequester carbon or withstand the effects of climate change. In this week’s issue, Brian Steidinger and his colleagues present a global map of the symbiotic status of the world’s forests, drawn from a database of more than 1.1 million forest inventory plots and featuring some 28,000 species of tree. They find that there are sharp transitions between the dominant types of symbiosis, and that these transitions are largely driven by climatically controlled decomposition rates.

Cover image: Miroslav Svoboda

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    An in situ investigation on the far side of the Moon has identified materials that might have originated from the lunar mantle. The results could lead to improved models of how the Moon formed and evolved.

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    It is difficult to carry out and verify digital quantum simulations that use many quantum bits. A hybrid device based on a digital classical computer and an analog quantum processor suggests a way forward.

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    A natural protein has been engineered to self-associate into an architecture previously unknown among biological molecules: a cage structure based on one of the classic polyhedra identified by Archimedes.

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    How Nature reported restrictions on the use of DDT in 1969, and dubious evidence of life on Mars in 1919.

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  • Article |

    Quantum-classical variational techniques are combined with a programmable analogue quantum simulator based on a one-dimensional array of up to 20 trapped calcium ions to simulate the ground state of the lattice Schwinger model.

    • C. Kokail
    • , C. Maier
    • , R. van Bijnen
    • , T. Brydges
    • , M. K. Joshi
    • , P. Jurcevic
    • , C. A. Muschik
    • , P. Silvi
    • , R. Blatt
    • , C. F. Roos
    •  & P. Zoller
  • Article |

    The developing mouse gut endoderm, mapped at single-cell resolution, reveals trajectories of cell differentiation before and during gastrulation and the emergence of regionalized cell identities along the anterior–posterior axis of the gut tube.

    • Sonja Nowotschin
    • , Manu Setty
    • , Ying-Yi Kuo
    • , Vincent Liu
    • , Vidur Garg
    • , Roshan Sharma
    • , Claire S. Simon
    • , Nestor Saiz
    • , Rui Gardner
    • , Stéphane C. Boutet
    • , Deanna M. Church
    • , Pamela A. Hoodless
    • , Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis
    •  & Dana Pe’er
  • Article |

    Single-cell transcriptional profiling of in vitro human pancreatic β-cell differentiation reveals progenitor and terminal fates, produces a detailed time course of endocrine induction and underpins a lineage model.

    • Adrian Veres
    • , Aubrey L. Faust
    • , Henry L. Bushnell
    • , Elise N. Engquist
    • , Jennifer Hyoje-Ryu Kenty
    • , George Harb
    • , Yeh-Chuin Poh
    • , Elad Sintov
    • , Mads Gürtler
    • , Felicia W. Pagliuca
    • , Quinn P. Peterson
    •  & Douglas A. Melton
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    The relativistic jets associated with the black-hole X-ray binary system V404 Cygni change their orientation on time scales of minutes to hours, implying that the direction of the jets is being affected by the dynamics of the surrounding accretion flow that powers them.

    • James C. A. Miller-Jones
    • , Alexandra J. Tetarenko
    • , Gregory R. Sivakoff
    • , Matthew J. Middleton
    • , Diego Altamirano
    • , Gemma E. Anderson
    • , Tomaso M. Belloni
    • , Rob P. Fender
    • , Peter G. Jonker
    • , Elmar G. Körding
    • , Hans A. Krimm
    • , Dipankar Maitra
    • , Sera Markoff
    • , Simone Migliari
    • , Kunal P. Mooley
    • , Michael P. Rupen
    • , David M. Russell
    • , Thomas D. Russell
    • , Craig L. Sarazin
    • , Roberto Soria
    •  & Valeriu Tudose
  • Letter |

    Initial spectral observations by China’s Chang’E-4 far-side lunar rover suggest the presence of materials that may originate from the Moon’s mantle.

    • Chunlai Li
    • , Dawei Liu
    • , Bin Liu
    • , Xin Ren
    • , Jianjun Liu
    • , Zhiping He
    • , Wei Zuo
    • , Xingguo Zeng
    • , Rui Xu
    • , Xu Tan
    • , Xiaoxia Zhang
    • , Wangli Chen
    • , Rong Shu
    • , Weibin Wen
    • , Yan Su
    • , Hongbo Zhang
    •  & Ziyuan Ouyang
  • Letter |

    Antenna-enhanced terahertz pulses ballistically switch spins in antiferromagnetic TmFeO3 with minimal energy dissipation between metastable minima of the anisotropy potential, as characterized by unique temporal and spectral fingerprints.

    • S. Schlauderer
    • , C. Lange
    • , S. Baierl
    • , T. Ebnet
    • , C. P. Schmid
    • , D. C. Valovcin
    • , A. K. Zvezdin
    • , A. V. Kimel
    • , R. V. Mikhaylovskiy
    •  & R. Huber
  • Letter |

    Mott materials feature scale-less relaxation dynamics after the insulator-to-metal transition that make its electric triggering dependent on recent switching events.

    • Javier del Valle
    • , Pavel Salev
    • , Federico Tesler
    • , Nicolás M. Vargas
    • , Yoav Kalcheim
    • , Paul Wang
    • , Juan Trastoy
    • , Min-Han Lee
    • , George Kassabian
    • , Juan Gabriel Ramírez
    • , Marcelo J. Rozenberg
    •  & Ivan K. Schuller
  • Letter |

    The mechanical behaviour of gold nanojunctions is investigated at the atomic scale using tuning-fork atomic-force microscopy, revealing a fluidic state at high strains with signatures of viscous-like dissipation and capillary-like adhesion.

    • Jean Comtet
    • , Antoine Lainé
    • , Antoine Niguès
    • , Lydéric Bocquet
    •  & Alessandro Siria
  • Letter |

    The formation of Bermuda sampled a previously unknown mantle reservoir that is characterized by silica-undersaturated melts enriched in volatiles and by a unique lead isotopic signature, which suggests that the source is young.

    • Sarah E. Mazza
    • , Esteban Gazel
    • , Michael Bizimis
    • , Robert Moucha
    • , Paul Béguelin
    • , Elizabeth A. Johnson
    • , Ryan J. McAleer
    •  & Alexander V. Sobolev
  • Letter |

    A spatially explicit global map of tree symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi reveals that climate variables are the primary drivers of the distribution of different types of symbiosis.

    • B. S. Steidinger
    • , T. W. Crowther
    • , J. Liang
    • , M. E. Van Nuland
    • , G. D. A. Werner
    • , P. B. Reich
    • , G. Nabuurs
    • , S. de-Miguel
    • , M. Zhou
    • , N. Picard
    • , B. Herault
    • , X. Zhao
    • , C. Zhang
    • , D. Routh
    • , K. G. Peay
    • , Meinrad Abegg
    • , C. Yves Adou Yao
    • , Giorgio Alberti
    • , Angelica Almeyda Zambrano
    • , Esteban Alvarez-Davila
    • , Patricia Alvarez-Loayza
    • , Luciana F. Alves
    • , Christian Ammer
    • , Clara Antón-Fernández
    • , Alejandro Araujo-Murakami
    • , Luzmila Arroyo
    • , Valerio Avitabile
    • , Gerardo Aymard
    • , Timothy Baker
    • , Radomir Bałazy
    • , Olaf Banki
    • , Jorcely Barroso
    • , Meredith Bastian
    • , Jean-Francois Bastin
    • , Luca Birigazzi
    • , Philippe Birnbaum
    • , Robert Bitariho
    • , Pascal Boeckx
    • , Frans Bongers
    • , Olivier Bouriaud
    • , Pedro H. S. Brancalion
    • , Susanne Brandl
    • , Francis Q. Brearley
    • , Roel Brienen
    • , Eben Broadbent
    • , Helge Bruelheide
    • , Filippo Bussotti
    • , Roberto Cazzolla Gatti
    • , Ricardo Cesar
    • , Goran Cesljar
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    • , Han Y. H. Chen
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    • , Lourens Poorter
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    • , Marcos Silveira
    • , James Singh
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    • , Ferry Slik
    • , Bonaventure Sonké
    • , Alexandre F. Souza
    • , Krzysztof Stereńczak
    • , Jens-Christian Svenning
    • , Miroslav Svoboda
    • , Natalia Targhetta
    • , Nadja Tchebakova
    • , Hans ter Steege
    • , Raquel Thomas
    • , Elena Tikhonova
    • , Peter Umunay
    • , Vladimir Usoltsev
    • , Fernando Valladares
    • , Fons van der Plas
    • , Tran Van Do
    • , Rodolfo Vasquez Martinez
    • , Hans Verbeeck
    • , Helder Viana
    • , Simone Vieira
    • , Klaus von Gadow
    • , Hua-Feng Wang
    • , James Watson
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    • , Susan Wiser
    • , Florian Wittmann
    • , Verginia Wortel
    • , Roderick Zagt
    • , Tomasz Zawila-Niedzwiecki
    • , Zhi-Xin Zhu
    •  & Irie Casimir Zo-Bi
  • Letter |

    Fossil evidence indicates that Denisovans occupied the Tibetan Plateau in the Middle Pleistocene epoch and successfully adapted to this high-altitude hypoxic environments long before the regional arrival of modern Homo sapiens.

    • Fahu Chen
    • , Frido Welker
    • , Chuan-Chou Shen
    • , Shara E. Bailey
    • , Inga Bergmann
    • , Simon Davis
    • , Huan Xia
    • , Hui Wang
    • , Roman Fischer
    • , Sarah E. Freidline
    • , Tsai-Luen Yu
    • , Matthew M. Skinner
    • , Stefanie Stelzer
    • , Guangrong Dong
    • , Qiaomei Fu
    • , Guanghui Dong
    • , Jian Wang
    • , Dongju Zhang
    •  & Jean-Jacques Hublin
  • Letter |

    A combination of improved near-infrared voltage indicators, high-speed microscopes and targeted gene expression schemes enabled simultaneous in vivo optogenetic control and recording of voltage dynamics in multiple neurons in the hippocampus of behaving mice.

    • Yoav Adam
    • , Jeong J. Kim
    • , Shan Lou
    • , Yongxin Zhao
    • , Michael E. Xie
    • , Daan Brinks
    • , Hao Wu
    • , Mohammed A. Mostajo-Radji
    • , Simon Kheifets
    • , Vicente Parot
    • , Selmaan Chettih
    • , Katherine J. Williams
    • , Benjamin Gmeiner
    • , Samouil L. Farhi
    • , Linda Madisen
    • , E. Kelly Buchanan
    • , Ian Kinsella
    • , Ding Zhou
    • , Liam Paninski
    • , Christopher D. Harvey
    • , Hongkui Zeng
    • , Paola Arlotta
    • , Robert E. Campbell
    •  & Adam E. Cohen
  • Letter |

    MicroRNAs delivered by adeno-associated viral vectors improve global and regional contractility, increase muscle mass and reduce scar size in a porcine model of myocardial infarction.

    • Khatia Gabisonia
    • , Giulia Prosdocimo
    • , Giovanni Donato Aquaro
    • , Lucia Carlucci
    • , Lorena Zentilin
    • , Ilaria Secco
    • , Hashim Ali
    • , Luca Braga
    • , Nikoloz Gorgodze
    • , Fabio Bernini
    • , Silvia Burchielli
    • , Chiara Collesi
    • , Lorenzo Zandonà
    • , Gianfranco Sinagra
    • , Marcello Piacenti
    • , Serena Zacchigna
    • , Rossana Bussani
    • , Fabio A. Recchia
    •  & Mauro Giacca
  • Letter |

    Loss of RB promotes both malignant progression and the development of metastatic disease; however, whereas reactivation of the RB pathway can revert metastatic tumour cell states to non-metastatic cell states, malignant cell proliferation is supported by MAPK–CDK2-dependent suppression of RB.

    • David M. Walter
    • , Travis J. Yates
    • , Miguel Ruiz-Torres
    • , Caroline Kim-Kiselak
    • , A. Andrea Gudiel
    • , Charuhas Deshpande
    • , Walter Z. Wang
    • , Michelle Cicchini
    • , Kate L. Stokes
    • , John W. Tobias
    • , Elizabeth Buza
    •  & David M. Feldser
  • Letter |

    In mice, prophylactic administration of TNF inhibitors mitigates some of the immune-related adverse effects of immune checkpoint blockade treatment, and also improves to some extent the anti-tumour effect of this immunotherapy.

    • Elisabeth Perez-Ruiz
    • , Luna Minute
    • , Itziar Otano
    • , Maite Alvarez
    • , Maria Carmen Ochoa
    • , Virginia Belsue
    • , Carlos de Andrea
    • , Maria Esperanza Rodriguez-Ruiz
    • , Jose Luis Perez-Gracia
    • , Ivan Marquez-Rodas
    • , Casilda Llacer
    • , Martina Alvarez
    • , Vanesa de Luque
    • , Carmen Molina
    • , Alvaro Teijeira
    • , Pedro Berraondo
    •  & Ignacio Melero
  • Letter |

    An artificial protein cage is readily assembled by metal ion coordination and disassembled by reducing agents, and displays excellent chemical and thermal stability.

    • Ali D. Malay
    • , Naoyuki Miyazaki
    • , Artur Biela
    • , Soumyananda Chakraborti
    • , Karolina Majsterkiewicz
    • , Izabela Stupka
    • , Craig S. Kaplan
    • , Agnieszka Kowalczyk
    • , Bernard M. A. G. Piette
    • , Georg K. A. Hochberg
    • , Di Wu
    • , Tomasz P. Wrobel
    • , Adam Fineberg
    • , Manish S. Kushwah
    • , Mitja Kelemen
    • , Primož Vavpetič
    • , Primož Pelicon
    • , Philipp Kukura
    • , Justin L. P. Benesch
    • , Kenji Iwasaki
    •  & Jonathan G. Heddle

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