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Volume 513 Issue 7518, 18 September 2014

By sequencing and comparing the genomes of nine ancient Europeans that bridge the transition to agriculture in Europe between 8,000 and 7,000 years ago, David Reich and colleagues show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations — west European hunter-gatherers, ancient north Eurasians (related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians) and early European farmers of mainly Near Eastern origin. They further propose that early European farmers had about 44% ancestry from a ‘basal Eurasian’ population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages. These results raise interesting new questions, for instance that of where and when the Near Eastern farmers mixed with European hunter-gatherers to produce the early European farmers. Cover: Leonardo Gonzalez.


  • Editorial |

    Finalizing the European Research Area is still a vibrant and relevant goal.

  • Editorial |

    Bacterial enzyme supercharges photosynthesis, promising increased yields for crops.

World View

Research Highlights

Social Selection

Seven Days

  • Seven Days |

    The week in science: Swiss scientists regain access to EU grants, Canadian archaeologists find long-lost ship, and Japanese regulators move to restart nuclear power.



News Feature


Autumn Books


News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Genome sequences and gene-expression data from representatives of five distinct lineages of African cichlid fish reveal signatures of the genomic changes that underlie the astounding cichlid diversity seen today. See Article p.375

    • Chris D. Jiggins
  • News & Views |

    Low-energy electrons have been found to mimic relativistic high-energy particles in cadmium arsenide. This defines the first stable '3D Dirac semimetal', which holds promise for fundamental-physics exploration and practical applications.

    • Zhihuai Zhu
    • Jennifer E. Hoffman
  • News & Views |

    A comprehensive analysis of lethal coalitionary aggression in chimpanzees convincingly demonstrates that such aggression is an adaptive behaviour, not one that has emerged in response to human impacts. See Letter p.414

    • Joan B. Silk
  • News & Views |

    An oversized, supermassive black hole has been discovered at the centre of a densely packed conglomeration of stars. The finding suggests that the system is the stripped nucleus of a once-larger galaxy. See Letter p.398

    • Amy E. Reines
  • News & Views |

    Sophisticated genetic tools that make brain cells responsive to light have now been used in mice to trigger a memory connected with a particular place, and to switch its association from negative to positive, or vice versa. See Letter p.426

    • Tomonori Takeuchi
    • Richard G. M. Morris
  • News & Views |

    A catalyst that couples together three reactants to form just one compound out of several possibilities, as a single mirror-image isomer, should simplify the synthesis of biologically relevant molecules. See Article p.367

    • Matthew T. Villaume
    • Phil S. Baran


  • Introduction |

    • Leslie Sage

Review Article


  • Article |

    A catalytic process is reported that begins with a highly selective copper–boron addition to a monosubstituted allene, and in which the resulting boron-substituted organocopper intermediate then participates in a chemoselective, site-selective and enantioselective allylic substitution; this approach is used in the enantioselective synthesis of gram quantities of two natural products.

    • Fanke Meng
    • Kevin P. McGrath
    • Amir H. Hoveyda
  • Article | | Open Access

    Genomes and transcriptomes of five distinct lineages of African cichlids, a textbook example of adaptive radiation, have been sequenced and analysed to reveal that many types of molecular changes contributed to rapid evolution, and that standing variation accumulated during periods of relaxed selection may have primed subsequent diversification.

    • David Brawand
    • Catherine E. Wagner
    • Federica Di Palma
  • Article |

    Proteome analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) colorectal cancer specimens reveals that DNA- or RNA-level measurements cannot reliably predict protein abundance, colorectal tumours can be separated into distinct proteotypes, and that copy number alterations drive mRNA abundance changes but few extend to protein-level changes.

    • Bing Zhang
    • Jing Wang
    • R. Reid Townsend
  • Article |

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large E3 ligase that mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins; here the complete secondary structure architecture of human APC/C complexed with its coactivator CDH1 and substrate HSL1 is determined at 7.4 Å resolution, revealing allosteric changes induced by the coactivator that enhance affinity for UBCH10–ubiqutin.

    • Leifu Chang
    • Ziguo Zhang
    • David Barford




Technology Feature

  • Technology Feature |

    When healthy parents have a child with a genetic disorder, the cause is sometimes a new mutation. Tools are emerging to meet the challenge of finding such changes.

    • Vivien Marx



  • Feature |

    Europe's Starting Grants are ideal for young researchers with big ideas and what it takes to bring them to life.

    • Quirin Schiermeier

Career Brief


  • Futures |

    Total recall.

    • Rebecca Roland

Brief Communications Arising


  • Insight |


    Almost 20 years after the discovery of the first exoplanet this Insight brings together a selection of reviews discussing our current theoretical understanding of exoplanets and their atmospheres, the missions that led to exoplanet discovery and the instruments, both present and future, that characterize planetary atmospheres.

Nature Briefing

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