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Originally treasured as a beautiful, symbolic and expensive gemstone, and later developed as an industrial work-horse, diamond is now entering a new realm of sensing applications that depend on its unique quantum characteristics.
People with cancer of the prostate currently have numerous treatment options available to them. But one of the most established, a type of radiation therapy known as brachytherapy, seems to be falling out of favour with clinicians.
Ulcerative colitis is a debilitating and incurable condition. But researchers have found fresh angles of attack, and a host of upcoming treatments raise the prospect of a durable victory against this common form of inflammatory bowel disease.
Bone fractures that fail to heal with conventional treatment are known as non-union bone fractures. They cause prolonged pain and disability. Work is under way to improve the success rate of surgical repair and to accelerate the bone-healing process.
The worldwide rise in obesity and diabetes has led to a massive spike in the number of people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which often advances to a more severe condition known as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and in some cases to fibrosis and cirrhosis. This Outline discusses new ways to diagnose and treat this progressive condition.
When arteries become blocked, slowing or limiting blood flow, it can cause pain and sometimes the loss of a limb. Severe cases of critical limb ischaemia can be life threatening. Around 70% of patients are eligible for surgery; those who are not have had few options other than amputation. But regenerative therapies could change that.
A burst eardrum — like a stubbed toe — is a common injury. Although ruptures can cause pain and hearing loss, most will heal naturally. For those that don’t, however, the only option is specialist surgery, but this is expensive and carries risks. It would be far better to try to stimulate the eardrum to heal itself, which is what tissue-engineering researchers think they have achieved.