Figure 9 - Temporal relationship of UES pressure, opening and CP EMG during 4-mL barium swallow relative to hyoid movement.

From the following article

Upper esophageal sphincter

Ivan M. Lang

GI Motility online (2006)



The start and end of hyoid movement are indicated by vertical lines where the shaded areas indicate standard error (SE). Horizontal bars depict mean + SE onset and offset of measured variables relative to start of hyoid movement. Green bars depict data from noninstrumented dogs (n = 8), and blue bars depict data from instrumented dogs (n = 6). Note the electrode implantation significantly delayed time of UES closure. There is approximately a 100-ms difference between CP relaxation, UES relaxation, and UES opening. (Source: Lang et al.,1 with permission of the American Physiological Society.)

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