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Paleoclimate data

To understand our world's changing climate, it is imperative that we understand how climates of the past varied. This collection brings together a series of papers published at Scientific Data that describe and share valuable data on past climates, i.e. 'paleoclimate data'. The data were obtained from a variety of sources, including historical records that can inform us about the recent past, and biological or fossil proxies that allow us to learn about climates that existed long before man walked the Earth. They have been organized below into two sections according to the level of data processing. Learn more about these levels by reading the Comment by Harry Dowsett, 'Speaking to the past'.

Photo description: Marine microfossils (planktic foraminifera) are identified and sorted by species on a faunal assemblage slide to gain quantitative census data. These primary data can be analyzed to yield a variety of paleoclimate information used to reconstruct past conditions. Photo by USGS.

Comment

“Speak to the past and it shall teach thee”. I first read those words on a dedication tablet within the John Carter Brown library at Brown University where I was a graduate student. Little did I know the phrase would accurately describe the next three and a half decades of my career. Paleoclimate data are the language we use to look into the past to understand ourselves and ultimately our future.

Comment | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Reanalysis and simulation-based datasets

Measurement(s) climate change • climate • temperature of air • volume of hydrological precipitation Technology Type(s) computational modeling technique • digital curation Factor Type(s) timing of temperature and precipitation estimates Sample Characteristic - Environment climate system Sample Characteristic - Location Earth (planet)
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12831935

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Measurement(s) temperature • precipitation process • vegetation layer • atmospheric wind speed • cloud • humidity Technology Type(s) computational modeling technique Factor Type(s) geographic location • temporal interval Sample Characteristic - Environment climate system Sample Characteristic - Location Earth (planet)
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12436484

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Measurement(s) climate change • temperature of air • precipitation process • radiation • snow • water-based rainfall Technology Type(s) computational modeling technique • digital curation Factor Type(s) Year Sample Characteristic - Environment climate system Sample Characteristic - Location Northern hemisphere
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.10012859

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) source-based data transformation objective • data integration objective • observation design Measurement Type(s) climate change Technology Type(s) computational modeling technique Factor Type(s) datatype • temporal_interval • geological epoch Sample Characteristic(s) Earth (Planet) • planetary atmosphere
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) data integration objective • source-based data transformation objective Measurement Type(s) hydroclimate Technology Type(s) computational modeling technique Factor Type(s) proxy sensor Sample Characteristic(s) tree growth ring • Earth (Planet) • lake sediment • speleothem • glacial ice • borehole • marine sediment • coral reef • marine sponge reef
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) data integration objective • observation design Measurement Type(s) climate change Technology Type(s) computational modeling technique Factor Type(s) DataTypes Sample Characteristic(s) Earth • Europe • England • Brazil • Jamaica • Portugal • Japan • Greenland • United States of America • Scotland • Russia • Hungary • Czech Republic • Germany • Poland • Switzerland • Northern Hemisphere • Austria • Romania • Sweden • Norway • Spain • Slovakia • temperature of air • pressure of air • hydrological precipitation process • atmospheric wind
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Primary and secondary datasets

Measurement(s) climate Technology Type(s) digital curation Factor Type(s) temporal interval • geographic location • proxy type Sample Characteristic - Environment climate system Sample Characteristic - Location Earth (planet)
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11967924

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Measurement(s) age Technology Type(s) Bayesian Model Factor Type(s) number of age controls • number of pollen samples • interval between age controls Sample Characteristic - Environment sediment Sample Characteristic - Location North America
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.9768113

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) modeling and simulation objective • data collection and processing objective • source-based data analysis objective Measurement Type(s) age-depth model Technology Type(s) computational modeling technique Factor Type(s) geographic location • depth Sample Characteristic(s) Atlantic Ocean • marine sediment
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) data transformation objective • text processing and analysis objective • data refinement and optimization objective Measurement Type(s) Historical Data Type Technology Type(s) digital curation Factor Type(s) temporal_interval • geographic location Sample Characteristic(s) China • climate system
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) observation design • data integration objective • biodiversity assessment objective Measurement Type(s) fossil Technology Type(s) data item extraction from journal article Factor Type(s) geographic location Sample Characteristic(s) Foraminifera • Arabian Sea • Atlantic Ocean • Earth • Eastern Indian Ocean • Mediterranean Sea • Northwest Atlantic Ocean • Pacific Ocean • Red Sea • Southeast Pacific Ocean coastal waters of Chile • West Europe Basin • West Sumatra Province • marine sediment
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) observation design • data integration objective • time series design Measurement Type(s) archaeal metabolite • calcification • glacial ice • radiance • sediment • stable isotope analysis • temperature of environmental material • trace metal analysis • wood Technology Type(s) data acquisition system Factor Type(s) measurement method • environmental material • geographic location • temporal_interval Sample Characteristic(s) Democratic Republic of the Congo • Tanzania • South Africa • Antarctica • United States of America • Russian Federation • Canada • Greenland • Finland • Norway • Iceland • Sweden • Bhutan • China • Indonesia • India • Japan • Kyrgyzstan • Kazakhstan • Mongolia • Nepal • Pakistan • Afghanistan • Thailand • Taiwan Province • Viet Nam • Australia • New Zealand • Slovakia • Romania • Austria • Switzerland • France • Spain • Germany • Estonia • Mexico • Atlantic Ocean • Pacific Ocean • Indian Ocean • Southern Ocean • Arctic Ocean • Chile • Argentina • Peru • lake sediment • speleothem • glacial ice • borehole • marine sediment • coral reef • marine sponge reef
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) time sampled measurement data set • observation design Measurement Type(s) oxygen-18 atom Technology Type(s) isotope ratio mass spectrometer Factor Type(s) Sample Characteristic(s) Globigerinoides ruber • Gulf of Taranto • marine sediment
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) observation design • longitudinal data collection method • data integration objective Measurement Type(s) climate proxy Technology Type(s) data collection method Factor Type(s) Sample Characteristic(s) marine sediment
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) observation design • biodiversity assessment objective Measurement Type(s) planktic foraminifera identification Technology Type(s) core sampling Factor Type(s) Sample Characteristic(s) Foraminifera • Bacillariophyta • North Atlantic Ocean • Pacific Ocean • Atlantic Ocean • South Atlantic Ocean • South Pacific Ocean • Indian Ocean • Southern Ocean • New Zealand • North America • ocean • continental shelf
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Design Type(s) observation design • longitudinal data collection method • data integration Measurement Type(s) climate proxy Technology Type(s) data collection method Factor Type(s) Resolution • Period Sample Characteristic(s) Central Russia • Alaska • Canada • Scandinavia • Eastern Russia • Greenland • North Atlantic • Arctic Canada • Forest • Ice • Marine • Lake • Cave
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data