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Achieving a three-dimensional longevity dividend


Improvements in life expectancy among high-income countries are increasingly occurring in later years. Efforts to exploit the malleability of age and the additional time longevity brings are already underway, but important roadblocks remain. This article discusses the socioeconomic concept of the longevity dividend, in which healthy and productive aging is achieved through a positive correlation between three dimensions: life expectancy, health and the economy. Investing in a longevity dividend is needed to offset the economic challenges of an aging society and embrace a new life course, but this requires deep-seated changes in individual behavior and corporate and government policies. Focusing on treatments that target delayed aging, supporting employment beyond 50 years of age and tackling ageism are key priorities.

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Fig. 1: Best practice life expectancy 1870–2017.
Fig. 2: US survival, health and employment by age.
Fig. 3: Percentage of total employment increase (2008–2018) accounted for by individuals over 55 years of age.


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Funding from ESRC research grant T002204 is gratefully acknowledged, as well as comments from M. Ellison, G. Mellior and D. Miles.

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Correspondence to Andrew J. Scott.

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Competing interests

A.J.S. is a cofounder of the Longevity Forum, an advisor to Genflow BioSciences, has acted as a consultant for GlaxoSmithKline and the United Nations on issues of longevity, and is a member of the World Economic Forum’s Healthy Ageing and Longevity Global Future Council.

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Peer review information Nature Aging thanks Joseph Coughlin and Linda Fried for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Scott, A.J. Achieving a three-dimensional longevity dividend. Nat Aging 1, 500–505 (2021).

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