Agriculture accounts for 80% of global freshwater consumption but the environmental impacts of water use are highly localized and depend on water scarcity. The water use impacts of food production should be a key consideration of sustainable diets, yet little is known of the water scarcity demands of diets, especially of individuals. Here we estimate the water scarcity footprint (WSF)—a water use impact metric that accounts for regional scarcity—of individual diets in the United States (n = 16,800) and find a fivefold variation between the highest and lowest quintile of diets ranked by WSF. Larger intakes of some meat, fruit, nuts and vegetables drive these differences. Meat consumption is the greatest contributor (31%) to the WSF of the average diet, and within that, beef contributes about six times that of chicken. Variation between substitutable foods provides insight into diet shifts that can reduce WSF. We introduce a novel, geospatially explicit approach that combines the types and quantities of foods in the diets of individuals, the irrigation water required to produce those foods and the relative scarcity of water where that irrigation occurs.
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Less animal protein and more whole grain in US school lunches could greatly reduce environmental impacts
Communications Earth & Environment Open Access 23 June 2022
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The water consumption and crop production data that support the findings of this study are available in Mendeley Data: https://doi.org/10.17632/brn4xm47jk.3. The NHANES dietary data that support the findings of this study are available from the National Center for Health Statistics, US Centers for Disease Control and Management: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/. All other data are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
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We thank G. Lewis for his assistance in generating the maps in Fig. 1, and R. Meyer for laying the groundwork for this study through his master’s thesis at the University of Michigan. This work is funded by the Wellcome Trust, grant number 106854/Z/15/Z.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Food thanks Tim Hess and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Heller, M.C., Willits-Smith, A., Mahon, T. et al. Individual US diets show wide variation in water scarcity footprints. Nat Food 2, 255–263 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-021-00256-2
Less animal protein and more whole grain in US school lunches could greatly reduce environmental impacts
Communications Earth & Environment (2022)
Nature Food (2021)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2021)