Adipose tissue possesses the remarkable capacity to control its size and function in response to a variety of internal and external cues, such as nutritional status and temperature. The regulatory circuits of fuel storage and oxidation in white adipocytes and thermogenic adipocytes (brown and beige adipocytes) play a central role in systemic energy homeostasis, whereas dysregulation of the pathways is closely associated with metabolic disorders and adipose tissue malfunction, including obesity, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and fibrosis. Recent studies have uncovered new regulatory elements that control the above parameters and provide new mechanistic opportunities to reprogram fat cell fate and function. In this Review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of adipocyte metabolism in physiology and disease and also discuss possible strategies to alter fuel utilization in fat cells to improve metabolic health.
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We apologize for being unable to cite papers that have contributed to the progress of this field owing to space limitations. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (DK97441, DK112268, and DK108822); the Edward Mallinckrodt, Jr. Foundation to S.K.; and the Claudia Adams Barr Program to E.T.C.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Chouchani, E.T., Kajimura, S. Metabolic adaptation and maladaptation in adipose tissue. Nat Metab 1, 189–200 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-018-0021-8
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