Thermal management is critical in modern electronic systems. Efforts to improve heat dissipation have led to the exploration of novel semiconductor materials with high thermal conductivity, including boron arsenide (BAs) and boron phosphide (BP). However, the integration of such materials into devices and the measurement of their interface energy transport remain unexplored. Here, we show that BAs and BP cooling substrates can be heterogeneously integrated with metals, a wide-bandgap semiconductor (gallium nitride, GaN) and high-electron-mobility transistor devices. GaN-on-BAs structures exhibit a high thermal boundary conductance of 250 MW m−2 K−1, and comparison of device-level hot-spot temperatures with length-dependent scaling (from 100 μm to 100 nm) shows that the power cooling performance of BAs exceeds that of reported diamond devices. Furthermore, operating AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors with BAs cooling substrates exhibit substantially lower hot-spot temperatures than diamond and silicon carbide at the same transistor power density, illustrating their potential for use in the thermal management of radiofrequency electronics. We attribute the high thermal management performance of BAs and BP to their unique phonon band structures and interface matching.
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High thermal conductivity in wafer-scale cubic silicon carbide crystals
Nature Communications Open Access 23 November 2022
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We thank H. Albrecht for careful proofreading of this manuscript and P. Chen for helpful discussion. Y.H. acknowledges support from an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship under grant no. FG-2019-11788, a CAREER Award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant no. DMR-1753393, a Young Investigator Award from the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant no. FA9550-17-1-0149, the Watanabe Excellence in Research Award, the Sustainable LA Grand Challenge and the Anthony and Jeanne Pritzker Family Foundation. This work used computational and storage services associated with the Hoffman 2 Shared Cluster provided by UCLA Institute for Digital Research and Education’s Research Technology Group, and the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by NSF under grant no. ACI-1548562.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Kang, J.S., Li, M., Wu, H. et al. Integration of boron arsenide cooling substrates into gallium nitride devices. Nat Electron 4, 416–423 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-021-00595-9
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