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An opening for humor in melancholy

A leaky blood–brain barrier may contribute to neuropsychiatric disease. Chronic stress is shown to alter blood–brain barrier permeability, allowing an inflammatory response to penetrate the brain. The deficit is mostly around the nucleus accumbens, an area central to motivation. The affected animals exhibit features of depression.

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Author information


  1. Department of Psychiatry, Division of Integrative Neuroscience, Columbia University and the New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA

    • E. David Leonardo
    •  & Alex Dranovsky


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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to E. David Leonardo or Alex Dranovsky.